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PRIMARY 

OBJECT LESSONS 

FOR A 

GEADUATED COUKSE OF DEVELOPMENT. 

A 

MANUAL FOR TEACHERS AND PARENTS, 



LESSONS FOR THE PROPER TRAINING OF THE FACULTIES OP 
CHILDREN. 



By N. A7CALKmS. 



Present to children things before words, ideas before names. Traia 
them to observe, to do, and to tell. 



NEW YOKK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FEANKLIN 8QTJAEE. 

1861. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-one, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York. 



MMu anow m bsaushom mm§ 



K 

fib I 
M 5-r 



PREFACE, 



" Instruction must begin with actual inspection, not with 
verbal descriptions of things. From such inspection it is that 
certain knowledge comes. What is actually seen remains 
faster in the memory than description or enumeration a hund- 
red times as often repeated." 

Thus wrote John Amos Comenius, an exiled teacher of 
Austria, about the middle of the seventeenth century. And to 
the introduction of his works Germany is largely indebted for 
the great progress in her schools which commenced during 
that century. 

Said the great Swiss educator Pestalozzi at the close of 
the eighteenth century, 

" Observation is the absolute basis of all knowledge. The 
first object, then, in education, must be to lead a child to ob- 
serve with accuracy ; the second, to express with correctness 
the result of his observations." 

On the philosophical principles taught by those two great ed- 
ucators, and confirmed by the experiences of subsequent ob- 
servers, is based the system of mental development illustrated 
in the present work. In the application of these principles, 
however, there have been successive changes resulting in the 
various forms of the inductive methods of education now prac- 
ticed in this country and in Europe. Not to those noble edu- 
cators belong all the credit of the present system of teaching 
from objects, the unknown from the known ; they developed 
principles only ; the systems have grown out of the study and 
application of those principles by succeeding educators. And 
A 



11 PEEFACE. 

to no other persons are we so largely indebted for rendering 
practical the educational ideas of Pestalozzi as to the Mayos 
of England. 

With an earnest desire to contribute something toward a gen- 
eral radical change in the system of primary education in this 
country — a change from the plan of exercising the memory 
chiefly to that of developing the observing powers — a change 
from an artificial to a natural plan — one in accordance with the 
philosophy of mind and its laws of development — the author 
commenced the following pages. 

In the preparation of a w'ork upon a subject of such impor- 
tance as one claiming to be a guide in the early education of 
the young, he felt it his duty to avail himself of the best sources 
of information by which he could add to his own the observa- 
tion and experience of the most successful educators. He has 
accordingly examined the various systems of infant education 
of Europe, and especially those by Wilderspin, Stow, and Cur- 
rie, and that practiced by the " Home and Colonial School So- 
ciety" of London, as presented by Elizabeth Mayo in her 
" Model Lessons" and " Manual of Elementary Instruction." 
The plan of developing Object Lessons contained in this book 
corresponds more nearly to that given in Bliss Mayo's works 
than to either of the other systems. 

In our own country this system has been successfully intro- 
duced into the Primary Schools of Oswego, N. Y., and has also 
been adopted in the course of instruction for the Public Schools 
of Chicago, 111. 

The present volume is designed to embrace a period of about 
three years of training preceding that point at which the pupil 
begins to gain knowledge from books by study and the usual 
lessons and recitations of school. It is the intention of the au- 
thor to prepare a second volume which shall embrace lessons 
in Natural History adapted to a portion of this same period, 
also extending them, with notes of lessons on other objects, 



PREFACE. iii 

chrough some two or three years of that period during which 
the pupils are assigned lessons in books, and thus to illustrate 
how this system of training may be applied to the entire course 
of common school education. 

This work differs from others prepared for teachers in this 
important feature ; it illustrates how the teacher should proceed 
at each successive step in developing the minds of children. 
In telling ivhat ought to be done, it proceeds to show how to 
do it by illustrative examples. 

Special attention is invited to the " Classification of Colors," 
also to " Elementary Reading." The mode of treating both 
of these subjects, it is believed, will amply repay a careful study. 

In preparing this work, the aim of the author has not been 
to produce a faultless composition, but rather a book adapted 
to the wants of teachers in presenting a natural, simple, and 
philosophical system of primary education so clearly and mi- 
nutely that no teacher can fail of gaining from it not only its 
principles, but a knowledge of how to apply them under the 
varying circumstances in which he may be placed. With the 
hope that he has not failed in this respect, this volume is ear- 
nestly commended to the kind consideration of teachers, pa- 
rents, and all friends of education. N. A. Calkins. 

iVew; YorA-, June, 1861. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION 11-40 

Introduction 11 

Preparation for Lessons 20 

Sketches of Lessons 21 

Suggestions for writing Sketches 24 

Conversational Lessons 26 

List of Subjects for Observation and Conversation 30 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM 41-93 

Apparatus for illustrating Form 42 

Introductory Exercises for teaching Children to observe Form. 

I. Distinguishing Shapes 49 

n. " Corners and Sides 50 

in. " Straight and Curved Sides 51 

IV. Combining Forms 51 • 

Illustrate Form with Common Objects 53 

Less. I. To develop the Idea of Straight Lines 55 

II. " " Curved " 57 

III. " " Surface, plane and curved .... 58 

IV. " " an Angle 60 

V. " " Eiglit, Acute, and Obtuse An- 
gles 63 

VI. To develop the Idea of Triangles 66 

VII. Position of Lines — perpendicular and horizontal 68 

VIII. Slanting Lines 71 

IX. Parallel Lines 72 

X. Square, Rhomb, and Parallelogram 74 

XL Pyramids 77 

XII. Prisms 78 

XIII. Cube and Cubical Forms 80 

XIV. Circle and Semicircle 81 

XV. Circumference and Arc 83 

XVI. Centre, Radius, and Diameter 84 

XVII. Cylinder and Cyhndrical Forms 86 

XVIII. Cone and Conical Forms 87 

XIX. Spherical Forms 89 

XX. Oval 91 

Concluding Suggestions 92 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OP DRAWING 94-98 

How Drawing may be introduced into Primary Schools 94 



VI COjS-TENTS. 

Page 
DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR 99-134 

Importance of training tlie Eye 99 

Preparations for illustrating Color 104 

Classification, Combination, and Description of Colors 105 

Harmony of Colors Ill, 134 

Less. I. Distinguishing the Primary Colors 112 

II. Naming the Primary Colors 113 

III. Distinguishing the Secondary Colors 114 

IV. Naming the Secondary Colors 115 

V. Red and Yellow ." 116 

VI. Blue and Shades of Colors 118 

VII. Hues and Tints of Red 120 

VHI. " " Yellow 121 

IX. Hues of other Colors 122 

X. Orange — mixing Red and Yellow 123 

XI. Green — mixing Blue and Yellow 124 

XII. Purple — mixing Blue and Red 125 

XIII. Indigo — mixing Blue and Purple 126 

XIV. Primary and Secondary Colors 127 

XV. Citrine 129 

XVI. Olive 130 

XVII. Russet 130 

XVni. About AVhite and Black 131 

Reviewing 133 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NOIEER 135-159 

I. First Ideas of Number 138 

II. Figures 141 

III. Formation and Succession of Numbers 144 

rV. Comparing Numbers 145 

• V. Order of Numbers : 146 

VI. Addition 148 

VII. Subtraction 151 

VIII. Multiplication 154 

IX. Division..,.. 155 

X. Fractions 156 

XI. Teaching the Tables by Objects 158 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE 160-173 

I. To develop the Idea of Size in general 160 

II. " " Length 162 

IIL " » Measure 163 

rV. " " relative Distance 165 

V. " " measured Distance 166 

VL " " Width 168 

VII. " " Thickness, Height, etc 170 

VIII. To show the Necessity of Standard Measure 171 



CONTENTS. Vii 

Page 
DEVELOPING IDEAS OF WEIGHT 174-181 

Less. I. To develop the Idea of Weight 176 

II. Weight compared I77 

III. Necessity of Standard Weights 179 

IV. Weighing 180 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OP SOUND 182-188 

I. Distinguishing Common Sounds 183 

11. Classifying Common Sounds 184 

III. Character of Sounds 185 

IV. Miscellaneous Exercises 186 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OP THE HUMAN BODY 189-228 

I. Distinguishing the principal Parts of the Body 190 

II. Touching Parts of the Body 190 

III. To distinguish Parts of the principal Parts of the Body 192 

IV. The Limbs 194 

V. The Joints 196 

VI. Parts of the Limbs 198 

VIL The Feet 199 

VIIL The Feet of Animals 201 

IX. The Hands 203 

X. The Head 205 

XL The Eyes 207 

XII. The Eyes and Sense of Sight 209 

XIII. The Ears and Sense of Hearing 212 

XIV. The Nose and Sense of Smelling 214 

XV. The Mouth 217 

XVL The Sense of Touch 220 

XVIL The Teeth of Animals 222 

XVIIL The Hair 224 

XIX. The Bones 2'^5 

XX. The Blood .'..!!..".*.".*.* 226 

PHYSICAL TRAINING 229-241 

School Exercises, with Illustrations and Descriptions 230 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OP PLACE 242-268 

I. To develop Ideas of Place 245 

11. Points of Compass 247 

III. Showing the Necessity of Fixed Points 250 

IV. Representing the Position of Objects on the Black- 

board, and applying the Points of Compass 252 

V. Playgrounds, Streets, and relative Distances 256 

VI. The Scale of a Map 258 

VII. Land and Water, Hills, Mountains, Plains, etc 263 

VIIL About Kivers, Lakes, and the Ocean 266 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
ELEMEKTAET EEADING 269-290 

The A B C Method 269 

The Phonic Method 271 

The Phonetic or Phonotvpic Method 272 

The Word Method \ 272 

The Word-building Method 273 

Objects of Teaching Eeading 274 

The Object Method 278 

OBJECT LESsoxs, theii' Nature and Design 291-348 

A Graduated Course of Object Lessons. 

First Series. — Naming and Describing Objects 298 

I. A Chair 298 

n. A Watch 301 

in. APin 302 

IV. A Thimble 303 

V. Eeview— Chair, Watch, Pin, Thimble 304 

VL A Kev 305 

VII. A Cart 306, 307 

Second Series. — Developing Ideas of the Qualities of Objects.. 308 

I. Glass 308 

n. Slate 310 

III. Water 312 

IV. Milk 314 

V. Review— Glass, Slate, Water, Milk 316 

VI. India-rubber 317 

Vn. Sponge 318 

VIII. Whalebone 321 

IX. Wool 322 

X. Eeview — India-rubber, Sponge, Whalebone, Wool... 325 

XL Sugar 326 

XII. Glue 328 

XIII. Coal 329 

XIV. Lead 331 

Third Series. — Developing Ideas of the Materials, Formation, 

and Resemblances of Objects 335 

I. Paper 335 

II. Leather 338 

III. Honev-comb 340 

IV. Eose Leaf 342 

Subjects for Object Lessons 347 

Use of Pictures 348 

DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS 349-358 

Less. I. To develop theldeaofGod as a kind Father 351 

n. " " " the Maker of aU Things 353 
IIL " " oftheSotil 355 



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 

This book is to be used as a, guide for the teacher in preparing 
lessons for a systematic course of development in training the fac- 
ulties of children to habits of observation and the acquisition of 
knowledge from the objects around them. 

Although the subjects of the lessons herein presented are de- 
signed to be given in nearly the order in which they here occur, 
yet it is by no means intended that each subject shall be continued 
separately until finished. The lessons on Form, Color, Number, 
Size, Weight, Human Body, Elementary Eeading, Place, and Mor- 
als, may be considered as so many branches, or school studies, and 
should be introduced in their proper time and aj)propriate places, 
as reading, writing, geography, grammar, arithmetic, philosophy, 
etc., are introduced into school both successively and continued at 
the same time. No teacher would think of finishing instruction 
in spelling and reading before giving lessons in WTiting and geog- 
raphy, or of insisting upon the pupils "going through" geography 
before commencing arithmetic and grammar ; yet there is a prop- 
er succession of these branches, and an appropriateness in com- 
mencing and gaining some knowledge of one before attempting to 
learn another. This same principle should guide in the use of 
this book. The child would not be able to take so simple an ob- 
ject even as a ch.ah\ and describe it properly, until it had learned 
the appropriate terms which are given under the separate heads 
of Form and Color. Hence the propriety of giving some lessons 
in those subjects before introducing the Object Lessons proper. 

Again, the pupils tire of monotony; they are interested by a 
variety ; so lessons on different subjects should succeed each other. 
With the preceding explanations, the manner of using this book 
may be readily understood, and the teacher of the Primary School 
will be able to arrange her order of exercises from the following 

DAILY PROGRAMME (fIRST TERm). 

/Conversational Lesson. /Moral Instruction. 

;Ji \ Reading and Spelling. gi \ Reading and Spelling. 

.§ ) Physical Exercises. -« ) Color. 

S "SForm. I "S Human Body. 

1^ /Human Body. g /Physical Exercise. 

(^Reading and Spelling. V^ Reading and Spelling. 

A2 



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK. 



j^ /'Convei'sational Lesson. _. /"Moral Instruction. 

^ \ Reading and Spelling. §"' \ Eeading and Spelling. 

g ^Form. % j Color. 

^ ^Phy.Jjcal Exercises. S ^ Physical Exercises. 

1^ /Number. g /Size. 

•^ (^Reading and Spelling. v,Reading and Spelling. 

Friday^ review the lessons of the ■vreek, adding something interesting to each. 

The following will suggest changes proper for the second term : 

DAILY PKOGKAjiljME (SECOND TERJl). 



Moral Instruction. 




f Reading and Spelling. 


Reading and Spelling. 




\ Color. 


Form. 


^ 


\ Physical Exercises. 


Physical Exercises, 


r§ 


J Size. 


Color. 


§ "^ 


\ Reading and Spelling. 


Human Body. 


s 


Number. 


Reading and Spelling. 




/ Place. 


Sound. 




V. Drawing. 


Conversational Lesson. 




r Moral Instruction. 


Reading and Spelling. 




I Reading and Spelling. 


Form. 


i 


1 Number. 


Physical Exercises. 


l< 


/ Drawing. 


Human Body. 




\ Size. 


Sound. 


s 


i Physical Exercises. 


Objects— 1st Series. 


f Place. 


Eeading and Spelling. 




V Reading and Spelling. 


Frid 


'mj. Review. 



The following programme for A and B classes of the Primary- 
Schools of Oswego, N. y., for two days, will indicate the range 
of topics, and the number of minutes devoted to each lesson. 



8 30. 
8 45. 

8 55. 

9 15. 
9 20. 
9 35. 
9 45. 

10 00. 
10 25. 
10 30. 

10 50. 

11 00. 
11 20. 

11 40. 

12 00. 
2 00. 
2 20. 
2 30. 
2 35. 

2 55. 

3 10. 
8 15. 
3 30. 

3 45. 

4 10. 
4 30. 



MONDAY MOENING. 




Opening Exercises. 


8 30. 


Moral Instruction. 


8 45. 


Reading, B, sub. 1. 


9 00. 


Gymnastics. 


9 15. 


Lesson on Number, B, sub. 2. 


9 20. 


Recess. 


9 35. 


Lesson on Place, A class. 


9 45. 


Reading, B, sub. 2. 


10 10. 


Gymnastics. 


10 20. 


Lesson on Number, B, sub. 1. 


10 25. 


Recess. 


10 50. 


Reading, A class. 


11 00. 


Writing on slates, B, sub. 1. 


11 15. 


Lesson on Number, A class. 


11 35. 


Intermission. 


12 00. 


Lesson on Number, A class. 


2 00. 


Lesson on Animals, A and B. 


2 15. 


Gymnastics. 


2 30. 


Eeading, B, sub. 2. 


2 35. 


Lesson on Number, B, sub. 1. 


2 55. 


Calling Roll. 


3 10. 


Recess. 


8 15. 


Spelling, A class. 


8 30. 


Reading, B, sub. 1. 


3 45. 


Reading, A class. 


4 00. 


Dismission. 


4 10. 



TUESDAY MOENtNG. 

Opening Exercises. 

Lesson on Form, B, sub. 2. 

Lesson on Weight, B, sub. 1. 

Gymnastics. 

Spelling, A class. 

Recess. 

Reading, B, sub. 2. 

B, sub. 1, Drawing. 

Gymnastics. 

Lesson on Number, B, sub. 1. 



Lesson on Objects, A class. 

Reading, B, sub. 1. 

Lesson on Number, A class. 

Intermission. 

Lesson on Number, B, sub. 2, 

Drawing, A class. 

G.ymnastics. 

Eeading, B, sub. 1. 

Lesson'on Weight, B, sub. 2. 

Calling roll. 

Eecess. 

Lesson on Number, A class. 

Lesson on Form, B, sub. 1. 

Spelling, A class. 

Lesson on Number, B, sub. 1. 



DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 



mTRODucTio:Kr. 



The first step toward a preparation for training 
the minds of children should be to ascertain the na- 
ture of the beings to be educated, and the processes 
adapted to the development of their faculties. When 
this is understood properly, it will be an easy matter 
to adapt instruction to them. As an introduction to 
this stej), we will state, at the outset, a few important 
facts as a basis of the development of the intellectual 
faculties. 

1. Our knowledge of the material world is derived 
through the senses. Objects, and the various phe- 
nomena of the external world, are the subjects upon 
which the faculties first exercise themselves. Knowl- 
edge begins with experience. 

2. Perception is the first stage of intelligence. Pri- 
mary education begins with the culture of the percep- 
tive faculties ; this culture chiefly consists in afibrding 
occasions and stimulants for their development, and 
in fixing perceptions in the mind by means of repre- 
sentative language. 

3. The natural and most healthful incentive to at- 
tention and the acquisition of knowledge, with chil- 



12 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

clren, is the association of pleasure with instruction. 
Curiosity, or the desire of knowledge, and the love 
of the beautiful and of the wonderful, are great actu- 
ating principles of early childhood, and their gratifi- 
cation is always accompanied by pleasurable emotions. 
Children possess a natural craving for knowledge as 
well as for occupation. Success afibrds them pleas- 
ure. Self-dependence is another powerful agent of 
culture. 

4. Instruction should give pleasure to children, and 
where it does not there is something wrong, either in 
the mode of presentmg it or in the subject-matter se- 
lected for instruction. 

5. All the faculties are developed and invigorated 
by proper exercise ; they may be enfeebled by being 
overtasked, or by being exercised on subjects which 
do not come within their proper sphere. 

6. The chief object of primary education is the de- 
velopment of the faculties. The period of develop- 
ment is emphatically that of the first ten years of the 
child's life. 

T. Some faculties are as active and almost as vig- 
orous in the child as they are in the man. Among 
these are sensation, perception, observation, and sim- 
ple memory. Other powers of the mind do not attain 
their full development until the child has arrived at 
the period of maturity. Among these are abstrac- 
tion, the higher jDowers of reason, imagination, philo- 
sophical memory, generalization, etc. 

8. The habits of attention and concentration are 
great main-springs of education. Habits are formed 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

by repetitions of the same act. The great secret in 
fixing the attention of children is to interest them — 
to mingle delightful associations with learning — never 
to overstrain their faculties, or to fatigue them by 
keeping them too long directed to one particular sub- 
ject. 

9. The natural jDrocess of education is from the 
simple to the complex, from the known to the un- 
known, from facts to causes, principles before rules, 
ideas before words, things before names. 

10. Explanations of some of the leading terms em- 
ployed in treating of the action of the intellectual 
faculties : — 

/Sensations — impressions made upon the mind 
through the medium of the senses. 

I^erce]oti07i — cognizance of sensation ; taking notice 
of the data presented to the mind by the senses. 

Attentioii — a bending to, stretching toward ; a 
process of the mind by which it detains the thoughts 
and directs them to the one object in view. 

Ohservation — attention to perceptions for the pur- 
pose of complete conceptions and perfect recognition; 
holding before the mind with attention. 

We are now prepared to state more definitely the 
order and process by which the minds of children gain 
knowledge, and to point out the steps to be taken in 
developing their faculties. We do not attempt here 
to account for all the actions and phenomena of mind, 
but simply to mention the leading faculties which are 
employed by children, and to indicate the order in 
which these act. 



14 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

The senses furnish to the mind its means of contact 
with the external world. Through sensatio7is the 
mind gains perceptions from the objects around it. 
Perceptions lead to conceptions of ideas, which are re- 
tained or recalled by memory. Imagination takes 
up these ideas, combines and presents them in new 
forms. Reason proceeds to iuvestigate them by more 
definite modes, Midi judgment is the result. 

Again, sensations give perceptions ; attention to 
perceptions constitutes observation. By means of 
observation hnowledge is obtained. 

It follows, then, that the first aim of the primary 
teacher, and of the parent, at instruction, should be 
to cultivate in the child habits of accurate observa- 
tion. Such habits — clear perceptions, fixed attention, 
and watchful observation — become a guaranty for the 
acquisition of knowledge in after years. 

ISTature suggests- the true plan for accomplishing 
this desirable end in the course which the child itself 
pursues in the examination of the various objects 
which surround it. The instructor should fall in with 
the child's desire to know, and allow it to exercise its 
senses upon each new object presented to it, by see- 
ing, feeling, hearing, tasting, or smelHng it, as the 
case may be. This is Nature's method of teaching, 
and man never has been able to improve it. By the 
use of its perceptive faculties on the objects around it, 
the child acquires a large stock of ideas before it goes 
to school. The teacher should begin her instruction 
at the point at which the child has arrived when 
school-life begins, and lead the mind gradually for- 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

ward from one degree of knowledge to another. She 
should begin with things that are familiar to the child, 
and lead it to use the knowledge already acquired in 
obtaining new ideas. "Words and their uses will nat- 
urally succeed a knowledge of things, because lan- 
guage will be needed to express the ideas derived 
from them. Here we perceive Nature's method to be 
things before words. If, then, we would improve the 
language of a child, we must first give it ideas, then 
words to enable it to express those ideas. 

Sometimes children employ original terms to ex- 
press their thoughts ; these should be accepted, and if 
faulty, let errors be pointed out and right words be 
given. Whenever a new word or term is to be 
taught, the thing or idea of which the term is a sign 
should be taught first, and be understood by the pupil 
before the word is presented. In all cases let the 
teacher present frst to her pupils a clear picture of 
the idea, then its name will have a meaning which it 
would not otherwise possess ; and when used it will 
call up a distinct conception in the mind. The oppo- 
site method — that of giving first the sign of the idea, 
and in too many instances the word only — is opposed 
to the first principles of education, and its results may 
be witnessed every day in the mere word knowledge 
of our schools. 

All our ideas are primarily derived from nature ; 
books merely represent the knowledge thus obtained ; 
therefore it must be evident that books instruct us 
only so far as we are able to connect the words con- 
tained in them with the ideas which those words rep- 



16 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

resent. Since ideas are not derived primarily from 
words, but from things, it follows tliat our teaching 
should begin with things, ideas, and principles. 

'No man becomes a good farmer, or carpenter, or 
painter, or engineer, or surgeon, from books alone ; he 
must have observation and pxictice — in other words, 
experience^ to make what he reads in books a living 
reaUty, so that words shall be to him as pictures to 
represent those realities. 

If habits of accurate observation are ever attained, 
the foundation must be laid in childhood. Since chil- 
dren ■ delight in natural knowledge — a knowledge of 
things — and since a constant impulse to know seems 
to urge them to acquire correct ideas of the objects 
about them, a little encouragement will lead them to 
employ this useful and divhiely-implanted desire so 
that observation will become a most valuable habit. 
Thousands of evidences exist around us j^roving that 
this noble impulse, if neglected or checked in child- 
hood, becomes greatly diminished in activity, even so 
far as almost to cease to take notice of the beauty and 
wonders of the world. 

From the lack of habits of observing the properties 
of common things, and deriving therefrom those les- 
sons to which such observation leads, the most lament- 
able errors are conmiitted. Without this habit na- 
ture is a sealed book ; the varieties of animal and veg- 
etable life appear but a mass of confusion ; the stars 
tell no wonders, mark no seasons. To remedy this, 
habits of observation must be commenced in infancy, 
carried forward in youth, and confirmed in manhood. 



INTRODUCTIUN. 17 

If we would take for our guide in education those 
laws wHcli God has prescribed for the development of 
mind, and follow them, we must begin with things^ and 
go from them to toords, teaching words as represent- 
ative symbols, or signs of the things themselves. This 
course would render the path of the learner pleasant, 
as God intended that the acquisition of knowledge 
should be. 

The most important period in education is that of 
the primary school. Hence those who undertake the 
charge of training children durmg this period should 
be especially qualified for it ; they should understand 
the cultivation of the senses, and know how to teach 
real things, real forms, real colors, real sounds, and 
how to lead the mind to correct conceptions. Before 
teaching the word cicbe as the name of an object, they 
should see that the child is familiar with and can read- 
ily distinguish the form of a cube ; before teaching the 
word green as the name of a color, they should know 
that the child has a distinct idea of the color itself; 
and, instead of teaching first the words rough and 
smooth, and then their definitions, the mind should be 
made acquainted with the sensations of rough and 
smooth, and the words taught to enable it to express 
those sensations. If teachers will learn to carry out 
this idea in all their ]3rimary instruction, loords and 
hooJcs will come to have a significance to the young 
which they seldom or never attain under the present 
methods of education. 

Observation teaches that the full use of our senses 
is to be acquired by suitable training. Their cultiva- 



18 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

tion is one of the important duties of both the parent 
and the primary teacher. On this subject Miss Edge- 
worth justly remarks : 

" Rousseau has judiciously advised that the senses 
of children should be cultivated with the utmost care. 
In proportion to the distinctness of their perceptions 
will be the accuracy of their memory, and probably, 
also, the precision of their judgment. A child who 
sees imperfectly can not reason justly about the ob- 
jects of sight, because it has not sufficient data. A 
child who does not hear distinctly can not judge well 
of sound ; and if we could suppose the sense of touch 
to be twice as accurate in one child as in another, we 
might conclude that the judgment of these children 
must differ in a similar proportion. 

"The defects in organization are not within the 
power of the instructor. We may observe that inat- 
tention and want of exercise are frequently the causes 
of what are mistaken for natural defects; and, on the 
contrary, increased attention and cultivation some- 
times produce that quickness of eye and ear, and that 
consequent readiness of judgment, which we are aj^t 
to attribute to natural superiority of organization or 
capacity." 

The more we spread and enlarge these roots of 
knowledge by such practical means, the more rapidly 
the future tree will grow, and the more abundant and 
perfect will be the fruits thereof. 

"A little child has sensations which we ourselves 
had, but which we now forget. It walks in the world 
as we might do in a new country ; the sky, the chang- 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

ing lights, every class of natural objects, give rise to 
new sensations, for each of which it seeks a name ; 
and long before it has words to characterize them, it 
is acquainted with many qualities and circumstances 
relating to them. But its faculties are chiefly em- 
ployed upon those things most closely allied to its 
own nature. Every thing that lives has a special in- 
terest ; motion invariably attracts as a sign of life, but 
it is human society and all its relations that come 
home most fully to its sympathies."* 

Whatever the child sees done he wants to know 
about, and to do ; and so great is his love of knowl- 
edge, that he will gladly throw aside the playthings 
which delight him to watch his papa or mamma in op- 
erations where tools are employed. He wants to know 
about the food he eats ; the uses of each article of fur- 
niture ; the uses of tools which he sees ; about his 
clothes — how they are made ; and about every thing 
relative to man, animals, and plants. In fact, his cu- 
riosity is insatiable, because a knowledge of these 
things is necessary to existence and well-being. Now 
it is evident that by taking advantage of this propen- 
sity to know, while gratifying a natural desire, habits 
of observation may be established, a great amount of 
knowledge imijarted^ and, at the same tune, the con- 
ception^ imagination^ reason^ Mid judgment cultivated, 
and the foundation laid for a thoroughly practical ed- 
ucation. 

Books for children will never accomplish this ; it 
should precede books ; it is ,the work of the parent 
* Young's Teacher's Manual. 



20 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

and of the primary teacher. To aid them in their en- 
deavors to proi3erly develop the minds of the chil- 
dren intrusted to their care is the design of this book. 
It is not expected that these lessons will be followed 
literally, but it is hoped that they will serve as models 
to suggest plans adapted to the wants of teachers and 
parents under the varying ckcumstances in which 
they may be placed. 

PREPAEATION FOR THE LESSON. 

No teacher should give a lesson before she has 
made herself thoroughly acquainted with the subject. 
How it should be treated, both as to arrangement and 
method, should first be fixed in her own mind. It is 
well to practice drawing out sketches of lessons in 
the form of notes, that the presentation of the subject 
may be in a concise and methodical manner ; but the 
notes thus drawn out should seldom or never be used 
while giving the lesson. These ought to be so well 
fixed in the mind before beginning the lesson that 
there will be no occasion for reference to them. The 
notes should present the leading points to be devel- 
oped in the subject, and indicate not only the success- 
ive steps of development, but the leading train of 
ideas which are to constitute the real knowledge to 
be given to the pupils. We will endeavor to illus- 
trate this point by a few simple " Sketches of Les- 



PREPARATION FOR THE LESSON. 21 



SKETCHES OF LESSONS ON FORM. 

I. Object of the Lesson. — To distinguish different 

forms. 
Steps. — 1. Point to a form on the "chart of forms," 
and let the child select one like it from the box 
of forms. 

2. Pick up a pattern of form, and request a child to 
point to one on the "chart" or blackboard that 
resembles it. 

3. Place three or four forms in a row, and request 
the children to select similar forms and place 
them in the same order. 

II. Object of the Lesson.— To teach the different 

kinds of sides. 

Steps. — 1. Show figures bounded by straight sides, as 
a square, triangle, etc. Require the children to 
point to similar sides in the drawings upon the 
board and in the objects about the room. 

2. Show figures or forms bounded by a curved line; 
let the children point out similar sides as before. 

3. Teach the names of straight sides, and round or 
curved sides. Let the children point to each as 
the name is given. 

III. Object of the Lesson.— To develop the idea of 

an angle. 

Steps. — 1. Show an angle; draw one like it on the 
board ; then require the children to point out the 



22 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSEEVATION. 

same or similar shapes in other objects ; to repre- 
sent the shape with two sticks or with their fin- 
gers. 

2. Teach them to describe the position of the lines 
which form the angle in relation to each other. 

3. Teach the name of the form represented by two 
lines which meet in a point. 

• 

SKETCHES OF LESSO]S"S ON COLOR. 

I. Object of the Lesson. — Teaching the names of 

color. 

Ste2')s. — 1. The children select a color according to a 
^ pattern shown, and are told its name. 

2. The teacher names a color, and the children se- 
lect the color named. 

3. The teacher points to a color, and the children 
give the name. 

II. Object of the Lesson.— Teaching' the shades of 

color. 

Steps. — 1. Develop the idea of light and dark shades. 

2. Shades of blue, as dark and light blue. 

3. Hues of red, as crimson, scarlet, vermiUon, pink. 

4. Hues of yellow — lemon, straw, cream. 

5. Hues of green — grass, pea, apple, etc. 

6. Hues of purple — violet, lavender, lilac. 
'7. Hues of orange — salmon, bufi". 



PEEPAEATION FOR THE LESSON. 23 

MISCELLANEOUS SKETCHES. 

I. Object of the Lesson. — To teach the children to 

observe the parts of a watch. 
Ste2?s. — 1. Let the children point to the parts of the 
watch, as the face, the glass, the hands, the case, 
etc. Tell them the names of each, if they do not 
know them already. 

2. Let the teacher point to the parts, while the pu- 
pils tell the names. 

3. Lead the children to tell the position of the dif- 
ferent parts. 

II. Object of the Lesson.— To develop the idea of 

crumbling. 

Ste2ys. — 1. Show the children a lump of salt, of sugar, 
and , stale bread. Lead them to observe their 
crumbHng by rubbing them in their hands. 

2. Lead them to compare these substances with a 
piece of wax, a stone, and a piece of metal. 

3. Tell them the name of the quality by which a 
substance comes into little pieces. 

4. Require the children to tell when a thing is said 
to be crumbling. 

III. Object of the Lesson.— To develop an idea of 
what sleep is, and of its use, and of God's wisdom 
as manifested in its adaptation to man. 

Steins. — 1. Lead the children to consider what sleep 
is, their helpless state when asleep, their uncon- 
sciousness ; would not know if danger approach- 



24 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

ed ; who watches over them ; whom they should 
thank when they rise in the morning. 

2. The use of sleep. We go to bed tired ; how we 
feel after a night's rest. The time for sleep ; the 
position for sleep. 

3. God's aj)pointment of night and day suitable to 
our wants. How beautiful and wise that there 
is a time particularly suited to sleep ; when dark- 
ness prevails — quiet. How bright and cheering 
the rising sun in the morning ; the air of morn- 
ing. He who made sleep necessary made a sea- 
son suited to sleep. 

SUGGESTIONS FOE WETTING SKETCHES. 

1. Style. — The style should be pointed, terse, clear, 
so as easily to catch the attention. There should be 
nothing superfluous, and nothing should be stated 
which a teacher would do in the ordinary course of a 
lesson. 

2. Matter. — All the facts or ideas which are to form 
the materials of the lesson should be briefly stated in 
the form of suggestive hints. If those facts or ideas 
are such as fall within the range of the children's ob- 
servation and discovery, the sketch should show,^rs^, 
by what means they are to be drawn from them ; sec- 
ondly^ how the children are to be led to exercise then* 
minds on them, and in what order. 

3. Arrangement. — ^First, the principal point or ob- 
ject of the lesson should be put down, then the suc- 
cessive ste2ys by which the process of development and 
instruction are to be conducted. Subordinate i^oint.s 



PREPARATION FOR THE LESSON. 25 

tending to illustrate the subject should be given. 
Some subjects require several heads ; in others, many 
divisions lead to confusion. 

Too much importance can hardly be given to the 
preparation of sketches of lessons by teachers who 
have not had extensive experience in this system of 
object training. It enables the teacher to go before 
her class with a definite object in view, and to take 
the proper steps for attaining it ; besides, the prepara- 
tion imparts freshness and interest to the subject. 

When a teacher is about to give a lesson on any 
j)roposed subject, the first inquiry should be, "Am I 
sufficiently acquainted with the subject?" The next 
inquiry should be, " How should I treat the subject ?" 
If not sufficiently acquainted with it, she should at 
once seek information* upon the subject, and study it. 

The following lessons have been prepared as a guide 
to the teacher and the parent in making the necessary 
preparations for a systematic and graduated course of 
development of the faculties of children, and for train- 
ing them to use. They are intended to be studied by 
the teacher, and used as notes should be used; or, 
more appropriately, to suggest how the teacher should 
proceed after the subject has been studied and the 
sketches prepared. They may also serve as a guide 
in the preparation of sketches. 

* A list of books adapted to furnish information on the subjects 
with which primary teachers especially need to be familiar is 
given on paji^e 361. 

B 



26 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 



COI^VERSATIOISrAL LESSONS. 

The child's first lessons should be conversational, and 
imparted in the simplest manner, aiming to awaken 
the mind, develop habits of observation, and furnish 
language. This work should be preparatory to a 
knowledge of the uses of objects, and of their proper- 
ties and qualities. 

That subject in which the child manifests the great- 
est interest is the one about which the conversations 
should commence, and it also marks the point where 
that child's instruction should begin. As the lessons 
proceed, the interest in that particular subject should 
be made the key-note for drawing attention to other 
subjects having a kindred interest. 

Conversations about things at home — every-day 
things — will usually prove interesting. These lessons 
should be conducted without formality. The children 
may be led to talk about the things which they daily 
see, and use, or wear, and to ask and answer questions 
concerning them. Those subjects should be chosen 
at first that are very simple, and with which both chil- 
dren and teacher are familiar. 

1. Suppose the teacher's first conversation with the 
children be about a cat : let her ask how many feet a 
cat has ; how many ears ; what a cat does ; what a cat 
is good for. Encourage them to talk about their cat. 
The same inquiries may be made about a dog. Care 
should be taken to encourage children to tell about 
whatever thing may form the topic for conversation. 



CONVEESATIONAL LESSONS. 27 

2. They may be led to talk about their playthings, 
in the next conversation, telling what playthings they 
have, and what they do with them ; who gave them 
their playthings. 

3. As children are fond of teUing what they have 
seen, at the third conversation let them tell what they 
saw on their way to school; what birds they have 
seen ; what animals they have seen, and where they 
saw them. 

4. After a few familiar conversations of this kind, 
which win confidence and remove restraints upon the 
expression of their thoughts, let them be led a little 
farther, and asked to name some objects that have a 
common resemblance in the material of which they 
are made, or in use ; as, what things are used to sit 
upon ? " Chair, sofa, stool, bench," probably would 
be the reply. Ask where they sit upon sofas, w^here 
on chairs, where on stools, where on benches. 

5. What things are worn on the hands ? " Mitts, 
gloves, mittens, rings, muffs." Who wear mitts ? Who 
wear gloves ? When are mittens worn ? How are 
rings worn ? When are muffs used ? 

6. What things are worn on the feet ? " Stockings, 
slippers, shoes, boots, overshoes." Why are stockings 
worn ? When are slippers worn ? Who wear shoes ? 
Who wear boots ? When are overshoes worn ? What 
else is worn on the feet ? 

7. What things are worn on the head ? " Cap, hat, 
bonnet." Who wear hats ? Who wear bonnets ? 
Do girls wear caps ? 

8. What things can you see in the schoolroom that 



28 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

are made of wood ? " Chair, bench, table, desk, floor." 
For what is the table used ? For v.hat are the desks 
used ? Do you think the scholars could walk in the 
schoolroom mthout a floor ? What, then, is its use ? 

9. What things are seen in the sky ? " Sun, moon, 
stars, clouds, rainbow." When may you see the sun ? 
Point where the sun is in the morning. Point where 
the sun is at sunset. When do you see the moon? 
Can you see the moon every night ? Can you see 
more than one moon ? Can you see more than one 
star at one time? Do you see the stars in the day- 
time ? When can you see clouds ? Did you ever see 
a rainbow ? 

10. Tell me some articles of dress. " Coat, vest, 
pantaloons, gown, a23ron." Do girls wear coats and 
vests? Who wear pantaloons ? Who wear aprons ? 
Who wear gowns ? Of what are coats made ? Of 
what are gowns made ? Are vests made of caHco ? 
Are aprons made of cloth Hke that used for coats ? 

In conducting these Conversational Exercises^ care 
should be taken to select at first those things with 
which the children are familiar, and not to lead them 
to observe things which are beyond their com]3rehen- 
sion. The course may be pursued for some time, 
gradually taking up subjects which require a wider 
range of observation, as the pupils become more capa- 
ble of telling what they have seen, and thus they may 
be led to a more thorough and definite knowledge of 
all the ordinary objects around them. 

Exercises of this character are especially adapted 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSONS. 29 

to children that have not learned to read ; and they 
may be introduced with profit in immediate connec- 
tion with their reading lessons. They are also appro- 
priate to introduce as occasional exercises^ for variety, 
or to fill up the time usually devoted to a lesson, 
which, from some cause, has not occujDied the full time 
assigned to it. 

For the purpose of aiding the teacher or the parent 
in readily selecting subjects for exercises in conversa- 
tion, also to illustrate how fruitful this plan is in its 
variety and adaptation to the wants and different con- 
ditions of schools, we have prepared lists of subjects 
for Conversation^ to be used in developing observation. 

It is by no means proposed that these lists shall be 
repeated for the children to learn ; that would be 
teaching luords before things^ instead of things before 
loords^ and defeat the very object of these lessons. 
The lists are given to suggest more minutely and def- 
initely how these exercises should be conducted. 

Some teachers may find objects named here with 
which their pupils are not acquainted ; those should, 
of course, be omitted. It may sometimes be thought 
best not to limit the number of objects to be named 
in a list. Calling for a given number has some ad- 
vantages ; however, the most important idea to be 
kept in view is, that these exercises are intended to 
develop habits of observation by means of conversa- 
tions ; to lead the children to see the things around 
themselves, and to guide them in their efibrts to gain 
knowledge by means of their senses. During this 
stage of development their attention should be direct- 



30 



DEVELOPMENT IN OBSEEVATION. 



ed only to those things which the senses readily per- 
ceive. 

LIST OF SUBJECTS FOR SOIPLE OBSERVATION AKD COX- 
VEESATION. 



1. 


Tell 7ne four things 


5. 


Four 2>cirts of a loin- 




seen hi a schoolroom. 






dow. 




Blackboard, 






Glass, 




Slate, 






Putty, 




Book, 






Sash, 




Chalk. 






sni. 


2. 


Four things done at 
school. 
Reading, 
Spelling, 
Singing, 
Writing. 


6. 


Foi 


^r parts of a door. 
Panel, 
Hinge, 
Latch, 
Lock. 






1. 


Five rooms of a house. 


3. 


Five things we eat. 
Bread, 
Meat, 
Potatoes, 
Cake, 
Pie. 






Kitchen, 

Pantry, 

Parlor, 

Bedroom, 

Chamber. 






8. 


Five parts of a barn. 


4. 


Tell lohat loe drink. 
Water, 
MHk, 
Tea, 
Coffee. 






Floor, 

Granary, 

Stable, 

Manger, 

Loft. 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSONS. 



31 



9. Five things used at 
dinner. 
Plates, 
Knives, 
Forks, 
Spoons, 
Tumblers. 

10. Six fruits good to 

eat. 
Cherries, 
Plums, 
Peaches, 
Apples, 
Pears, 
Oranges. 

11. Five hinds of meat 

used to eat. 
Beef, 
Lamb, 
Veal, 
Pork, 
Chicken. 

12. Four roots loMch we 

eat. 
Beets, 
Turnips, 
Carrots, 
Radishes. 



13. Four principal p>arts 

of a tree. 
Roots, 
Trunk, 
Limbs, 
Leaves. 

14. Five hinds of trees 
growing in forests. 

Pine, 

Oak, 

Elm, 

Maple, 

Beech. 

15. Six hinds of nuts good 

for eating. 
Chestnut, 
Walnut, 
Butternut, 
Hazlenut, 
Peanut, 
Hickory-nut. 

16. Five sweet-smelling 

floioers. 
Rose, 
Pink, 
Sweet-pea, 
Honeysuckle, 
Violet. 



32 



DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 



IV. Six trades or em- 


21. 


Five things used hy 


ployments. 




housekeepers. 


That of the Shoemaker, 




Broom, 


" Carpenter, 




PaU, 


" Mason, 




Flat-iron, 


" Painter, 




Dishes, 


" Tailor, 




Spoons. 


" Farmer. 








22. 


Five tools used hy gar 


18. Five iGciys of cook- 




deyiers. 


ing. 




Spade, 


Boiling, 




Rake, 


Roasting, 




Hoe, 


Frying, 




Trowel, 


Baking, 




Watering-pot. 


Stewing. 








23. 


Five tools used hy car 


19. Fiveicays of clean- 




penters. 


ing. 




Saw, 


Sweeping, 




Plane, 


Washing, 




Square, 


Scouring, 




Hammer, 


Brushing, 




Chisel. 


Dusting. 








24. 


Five tools used hy 


20. Fine ways of sewing. 




shoemakers. 


Basting, 




Awl, 


Stitching, 




Hammer, 


Hemming, 




Knife, 


Running, 




Pincers, 


Overcasting. 




Last. 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSON'S. 33 

25. Five things used to 29. Five actio?is loith the 

give heat. hand. 

Wood, Holding, 

Coal, Squeezing, 

Coke, Pinching, 

Pitch, Boxing, 



Gas. 




Pulling. 


26. Five things used to 


30. 


Five actions loith the 


give light. 




feet. 


Tallow, 




Walking, 


Oil, 




Running, 


Fluid, 




Jumping, 


CamiDhene, 




Kicking, 


Gas. 




StamjDing. 


27. Five things that 


31. 


Five movements of an- 


melt loith fire. 




imals. 


Ice, 




Creeping, 


Butter, 




Swimming, 


Tallow, 




Flying, 


Wax, 




Climbing, 


Lead. 




Hopping. 



28. Five thi7igs produced 32. Five sounds made hy 
by cold. animals. 



msf 



iD-> 



Frost, Mew 

Sleet, Barking, 

Hail, Crowing, 

Snow, Bleating, 

Ice. Neighing. 
B2 



34: 



DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 



33. Five things that fire 

does. 
It warms, 
" melts, 
" bm-ns, 
" scorches, 
" dries. 

34. Five things that ica- 

ter does. 
It wets, 
" cleanses, 
" quenches tMrst, 
" dissolves, 
" flows. 

35. Five modes of trav- 

eling. 
On horseback, 
In a carriage, 
By rail-road, 
By steam-boat, 
In a sleigh. 

36. Ten vessels that loill 

hold loater. 
Tub, kettle. 
Pail, pan. 
Cup, tumbler, 
Basin, pitcher. 
Barrel, bucket. 



37. Five things right to do. 
Obey parents and teachers^ 
Be kind to companions. 
Be attentive to lessons. 
Tell the truth. 

Pray to God. 

38. Four things loicTced to 

do. 
To quarrel, 
To tell a lie, 
To steal. 
To swear. 

39. Three things in lohich 
birds and fish differ. 

Birds have feathers, 
Fish have scales. 
Birds have wings, 
Fish have fins. 
Birds are warm. 
Fish are cold. 

40. Opposite qualities hi 

taste. 
Sweet, 
Sour. 
Delicious, 
Bitter. 
Salt, 
Fresh. 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSONS. 35 

41. Ten suhstcmces used 42. Ten ivays of fastening 

in building a house. things together.^ 

Stone, By a pin, 

Brick, " a needle and thread. 

Iron, " paste, 

Glass, " glue. 

Putty, " a wafer. 

Pine, " sealing-wax, 

Oak, " nails. 

Lime, " solder. 

Sand, " putty. 

Paint. " dove-tailing. 

43. Ten things bought at a grocery. \ 
Sugar, tea, coffee, starch, soap, cheese, butter, eggs, 
raisins, flour. 

44. What grows in the garden ? 

45. What grows in the field ? 

46. What things are made of wood? 

47. What things are made of iron ? 

48. What things are made of leather? 

49. What things are made of tin ? 

50. What things are made of glass ? 

* Question the children as to the particular advantage of each 
of these kinds of fastenings. When a pin is better than a needle 
and thread ; when we use glue ; when paste ; when putty, etc. 

t Let the teacher introduce an exercise of this kind by asking 
the children if they have ever been in a grocery. Then request 
them to tell what they saw there. Ask what use is made of the 
articles bought at the grocery. Of some of the things, the chil- 
dren may be asked to tell where the grocer gets them. 



36 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 



additto:n-al subjects, 

On which more extended Conversational Exercises 
may he had. 
These should not ordinarily be introduced before 
the second or third year of this training process. 

Name things made of wool. Five birds that sing. 

Things made of India-rubber. Five things that birds do. 

Five things that are soft. Five uses of a cow. 

Five things that are hard. Five young of animals. 

Ten things used on the farm. Five insects. 

Ten things used in the house. Five difierent relationships. 

Ten different trades. Five good habits. 

Ten pointed instruments. Five bad habits. 

Ten agricultural employments. Five good dispositions. 

Ten domestic animals. Five bad dispositions. 

Ten wild animals. Ten sounds made by man. 

Five animals with hoofs. Ten sounds made by animals. 

Five animals with claws. Five cutting instruments. 

Five birds \a\h. webbed feet. Five habitations of man. 

Five birds with toes separated. Five things used in the kitchen. 

What is the work of farmers ? To till the soil. 
What is the work of carpenters ? To build houses 
and barns. 

What is the work of masons ? 
What is the work of painters ? 
What is the work of the blacksmith ? 
What is the work of the shoemaker ? 
What is the work of the cabinet-maker ? 
Who made the chairs that you sit on ? 
Who made the table and the sofa ? 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSONS. 37 

What is the work of the saddler ? 
What is the work of the miller ? 
What is the work of the milliner ? 
What does the merchant do ? 
What are the parts of a bed? 
What can you buy at the baker's ? 
What can you buy of the grocer ? 
What is the work of the tailor ? 
Who made your clothes ? 
Who prepared the leather for your shoes ? 
What do you call the man who made your hat ? 
What is the name of the street on which the school- 
house stands? 

What streets cross this street ? 

What different kinds of shops have you seen ? 

What meeting-houses or churches have you seen? 

Who make tables, bedsteads, and bureaus ? 

Who made your hat ? 

Who makes bonnets ? 

Who makes shoes ? 

Who makes the pajDer for books ? 

Who prints the books ? 

Who bmds the books ? 

Who makes wagons ? 

Who makes saddles and harnesses ? 

Who makes things of iron ? 

What things do farmers plant ? 

What things do farmers sow ? 

When do farmers sow wheat ? 

When do they sow oats ? 

When do farmers plant corn and potatoefs ? 



88 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSERVATION. 

When do they mow grass ? 

In what month do farmers harvest wheat ? 

In what month do they harvest oats ? corn ? 

What berries get ripe first ? 

When do ajDples get ripe ? Do all aj)ples get riiDe 
at the same time ? 

Which get ripe first, plums or grapes ? 

What fruits grow on bushes ? 

What fruits grow on vines? 

What fruits grow on trees ? 

What nuts grow in burrs ? 

What nuts have hard shells ? 

When do nuts get ripe? 

What seeds grow in pods ? 

What trees shed their leaves in the autumn ? 

What trees shed their leaves in the spring ? 

What trees have leaves aU the year ? 

How many teeth have you ? 

How many front teeth has a cow on her uj^per jaw ? 

In what direction do hoj) vines wind ? 

Do other vines wind around in the same direction ? 

In what direction does the bean vine wind ? 

Does the grain of winding timber usually wind with 
the sun ? 

Do flowers shut themselves up at night ? 

Do any flowers close at noon ? 

What flowers open in the afternoon ? 

Are there any flowers that open only at night ?* 

* See Habits of Flowers in " Child's Book of Nature. " 



CONVERSATIONAL LESSONS. 89 

Many of the foregoing questions sliould be given out 
before the class exercise, and the j)upils encouraged 
to give as many answers as possible to such as admit 
of several. The teacher may often find it best to 
vary the form of the question, and to add others on 
the same subject. Those here given are intended to 
furnish a sufficient variety on diflferent topics to make 
it easy for the teacher to prepare those that vrill lead 
the children to a great number of useful observations. 
It is not supposed that these questions embrace all 
that are necessary to be asked, nor all that may be 
profitable. The teacher who has tact will readily see 
their tendency and importance, and will carry out the 
plan successfully. 

It will be observed that these exercises can be ex- 
tended almost without limit, and that the interest of 
the pupils can be kept up by such variations as will 
readily suggest themselves to the ingenious teacher. 
It woidd sometimes add interest to the conversations 
to tell the children beforehand what class of things 
they will be called upon to talk about at the next les- 
son ; but this should only be done where the interest 
is very great, and where it seems to afford additional 
pleasure to the class. 

Children possess active minds ; they are constantly 
changing from one thing to another, and it must not 
be expected that they can consider a subject for a con- 
siderable length of time as older persons do, or that 
they would think much about a lesson, should they be 
told what it will be, before they are called upon to 
talk about it, especially if they do not manifest more 



40 DEVELOPMENT IN OBSEEVATION. 

than ordinary interest in it. It requires skill on the 
part of the teacher to keep up a lively interest, even 
during a class exercise, when, the subject has all the 
attraction of novelty. 

The teacher who has an enthusiastic love of her 
work, and who is possessed of tact^ will succeed, even 
with poor methods, but far better after a few sugges- 
tions relative to good ones. It is to such teachers 
that we look with hope for a successful introduction 
into our schools of methods for cultivating habits of 
accurate observation. 

The importance of cultivating such habits in child- 
hood, and the consequent love for nature, are beau- 
tifully expressed in the following words from an ar- 
ticle on the " Cultivation of the Perceptive Faculties," 
by Prof William Russell, published in BarnarcVs 
tTourncd of Education: 

" The ' pliant hour' must be taken for all processes 
of mental budding, grafting, or pruning, as well as in 
those of the orchard. An early dij) into the study of 
nature will serve to saturate the whole soul with a 
love for it so strong as to insure the prosecution of 
such subjects for life. The season is ausjDicious ; the 
senses are fresh and suscejDtible ; the mind is awake ; 
the heart is alive; the memory is retentive; nature is 
yet a scene of novelty and delight ; and application is 
a pleasure. The twig may now be bent in the direc- 
tion in which the tree is to be inclined." 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOM. 



In the natural order of the development of the hu- 
man faculties, the mind of the child takes cognizance 
first of the forms of objects. It is this quality, in its 
simplest conceptions, which earliest attracts the atten- 
tion of the child to the things around it. Byfonn it 
learns to distinguish the chair from the table, the bell 
from the book, the cat from the dog, long before it 
gains any knowledge of the properties and nature of 
these objects. 

Endeavoring to follow nature in this respect, we 
took the first step toward the development of mind 
by simple observation. Our aim therein was to se- 
cure to the pupils greater familiarity with objects, 
their shapes, resemblances, differences, and uses, and 
by that means to enkindle a desire to know more than 
merely looking at them in the usual unobserving man- 
ner will teach. 

Under the head of Foem we come to a more mi- 
nute examination of objects for the purpose of obtain- 
ing clear conceptions of their shape, and to learn the 
names by which their different forms are designated. 
Here we shall endeavor to show how to lead children 
to use those names properly in their descriptions of 
things. It is the more important that attention be 
given to this subject at this early period in the intel- 
lectual training of children, because, if left to them- 



42 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

selves, they will be very liable to grow up with wrong 
ideas, or without clear conceiDtions either of forms or 
their names, and would never be able to describe any 
thing intelligibly. 

To teach these names of form may be deemed 
somewhat arbitrary, yet it is far less so than to teach 
children the letters before teaching them words. By 
exercising a little skill in illustrating each form with 
a variety of objects, diagrams on cards and on the 
blackboard, and teaching its name after its form is 
understood, these lessons will prove attractive and in- 
teresting even to young children. 

APPAEATUS FOR ILLIJSTEATING POEM. 

As a means of illustrating form^ and developing 
ideas of it clearly, there should be provided a chart 
or card containing drawings of the principal forms to 
be suspended before the pupils, and the same shapes 
should be made of wood* or cut from pasteboard. 
The card of forms should contain a 




Waved Hne. x.^— Slanting line. Perpendicu- 

Spiral line. lar line. 

* "Charts of Lines and Forms" have been prepared for illustra- 
ting these lessons, also a "Box of Forms" containing two speci- 
mens of each form represented on the " Chart." 



AFFARATUS FOR ILLUSTRATING FORM. 43 




Parallel lines. 



Right angles. 



Acute angle. Obtuse angle. 

Forms hounded by Straight Lines. 





_ Right-angled 
Equilateral triangle, 

triangle. 



Isosceles 
triangle. 



Rectangle or 



Trapezium. Parallelogram. Square. 



Rhomb. 



Rhomboid. 



44 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOKM. 



\ 





Pentagon. Hexagon. Heptagon. Octagon, 

JForms hounded hy Curved Lines. 







^V "--^ ^.-^ Oval. 

Circle. Crescent. Spherical triangle. 



Arc. 




o 

Eing. 



Ellipse. 



Forms hounded hy Straight and Curved Lines. 




Semicircle. 



Segment, 



Quadrant. 



Sector. 



*-. -^ 

Radius. 



Diameter. 



APPARATUS FOR ILLUSTRATING FORM. 45 
Solids. 






Cube. 



Prisms. 



Pyramid. 






Tetrahedron. 



Cylinder. 



Cone. 




Sphere. Hemisphere. Spheroid. 



Oval. 



Among objects for illustrating form there should 
be a gonigraph and the Chinese tangram ; and the 
child should also have provided for amusement at 
home little bricks — blocks made of some hard wood, 
as cherry or maple, four inches long, two inches wide, 
and one thick. These bricks form suitable toys for 
the child from two to six or eight years of age. It 
may be taught to pile them up and break joints in im- 
itation of brick-work. By the time a boy has played 
with these blocks for one year, it will be astonishing 
to see what a variety of square and circular buildings, 
pyramids, towers, bridges, arches, gateways, etc., etc., 



46 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 



he will construct with them. Such amusement de- 
velops the observing powers, cultivates imagination, 
and imparts skill to the eye and hand of the child, 
■while it furnishes an almost exhaustless means of en- 
tertainment. 

GOXIGEAPH. 



The gonigraph is a small instrument resembling 
somewhat r. jointed carpenter's rule, but made so as 
to bend in only two directions. It consists of ten 
short rulers, or joints of iron or brass, hinged together 
by pivots. With it may be formed all the geometri- 
cal figures that consist of straight lines and angles, 
some of which are illustrated by the accompanying 



ensTravmofS : 





Ehomb. 



Square. Triangle. 



Parallelogram. 




Octagon. 



Pentagon. 



APPARATUS FOR ILLUSTRATINa FORM. 47 



CHINESE TANGRAM. 





The tangram may be made of metal, wood, or paste- 
board. It consists of seven pieces, as seen in the ac- 
companying drawings, each having three or four an- 
gles. With these pieces several hundred figures may 
be formed. At first the child may observe how the 
seven pieces can be jDlaced so as to form two perfect 
squares ; then it should be allowed to take the pieces 
and form these squares. When it is able to do this 
readily, let it learn how to 
form a larger square with 
all the pieces. Afterward 
outlines of figures may be 
given,* and the child re- 
quested to form the same 
figures, or to arrange them 
in shapes according to its 
own fancy. It is said that 
the tangram was one of 
the amusements of Napoleon. 

* There is a small book published showing some three hundred 
figures that may be formed with the tangram. 




48 



DEYELOPIIs^'G- IDEAS OF FORM. 




1 2 o i o 

The above drawings represent the surfaces of sev- 
eral of the solids on a plane, and show how they may 
be formed by cutting these figures of pasteboard. The 
outside lines give the shape of the pasteboard after it 
is cut, and the dotted lines indicate where it is to be 
cut half through, that the parts may be easily turned 
up and brought together to represent these solids. 
The outlmes given here will form, 1, a quadrangular 
pyramid ; 2, a triangular pyramid ; 3, a cube ; 4, a tet- 
rahedron ; 5, a triangular prism. Children who are 
old enough to form these figures will find profitable 
amusement in making them at home. 

The apparatus here described for illustrating forrti 
is simple, and may be easily prepared, or purchased at 
a small expense. In addition, every teacher should 
have and use a blackboard, and the children slates and 
pencils. They should be encouraged to imitate the 
lessons and figures drawn on the blackboard, or those 
represented upon the " card." At first, however, they 
may be allowed to use the slate and pencil pretty 
much as they please, until they have obtained ■ sufii- 
cient skill in their use to enable them to copy with 
some degree of success the sim23lest forms in outline. 
Thus they will find pleasing employment for many 
otherwise weary hours in the school-room. 



INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 49 



INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES FOR TEACH- 
ING CHILDREN TO OBSERVE FORM. 

1. Distinguishing Shapes. — l. Place before the 
children several different forms cut from wood or 
pasteboard ; also suspend a card on which those forms 
are represented by diagrams. 

Point to a form on the card, and require the pupil 
to select one from the objects, or "box of forms," of 
the same shape. Appeal to the other pupils to de- 
termine if the right figure has been selected. The 
teacher proves it to be correct by applying the figure 
to the picture on the card. Call upon each pupil to 
do the same thing at two or three different times. 

2. The teacher picks up a pattern of form next, and 
a child points to the one on the card that corresponds 
with it. The correctness of the child's pomting is de- 
cided by appealing to the class as before. Each pupil 
should go through with the same exercise. 

3. Capital letters may be used in teaching children 
to distinguish form. For this purpose, those letters 
which are the most simple in shape should be select- 
ed. The teacher may place before them cards, each 
containing one of the letters, as | ^ H , L V T N X 
K, Y, O, D, U, C, P, B, S, Z,V, E, W. She may 
point to one of the letters on the " card of letters," 
and request them to select one like it from the letter 
cards, proceeding as with the form patterns. This 
should be made simply an exercise in form, not for 

C 



50 DEVELOPINa IDEAS OF FOEM. 

teaching the names of the letters at this stage of the 
process. 

11. Distinguishing Corners and Sides.— i. Take a 

square and a triangle, and lead the children to ob- 
serve the difference in the number of their sides and 
corners. Let them point out the same difference on 
the card of forms. Proceed with other forms in the 
same way. Lead the children to find sides and cor- 
ners in the objects about the room by showing them 
a book, a slate, table, etc. 

2. Let them select forms that have more than four 
sides and four corners, and jDoint to the drawings 
which represent them. 

3. The teacher may draw figures on the blackboard 
to represent all of the forms selected, then call upon 
the puj)ils to point to the sides of each ; then to the 
corners of each ; then to tell how many sides and cor- 
ners each has. 

4. Ask the jDupils to tell what a side is between. 
"Two corners." Hold uj) a figure with three sides, 
and inquire how many corners it has ; then how many 
sides. Proceed in the same manner with figures of 
four, five, six, seven, and eight sides. Thus lead them 
to observe that the corners and sides of any figure are 
always equal in number. 

5. Request a pupil to select a figure with three 
sides ; another, one with five sides ; another, one with 
eight sides, and so on. Proceed in the same manner, 
and select figures with four corners, three corners, etc. 

Request the pupils to point to figures on the black- 



INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 51 

board or card with five corners, or three sides, or 
eight corners, as the teacher may direct. Let the 
children arrange all the figures in order according to 
their number of sides. 

III. Distinguishing straight and curved Sides. 

— The teacher may select a figure with straight sides, 
as a square, also a circle and a semicircle. Request 
a pupil to point to fi3rms on the card that have a side 
resembling a part of the circle. Let them select ob- 
jects that have the same form; also point out letters 
having these shapes, as Q, D, P, B, Ue 

IV. Combining Forms. — Lead the children to make 
new figures by combining two or more of these forms, 
as uniting two right-angled triangles to form a rectan- 
gle. By uniting them difi'erently a trapezium may be 
formed, containing obtuse, acute, and right angles. 

Show them that two equilateral triangles will form 
a rhomb. Thus they may be led to make several of 
the regular forms, and a great number of fancy figures. 

Xieaves."^ — An interesting exercise can be had on 
form by means of leaves of plants and trees. Re- 
quest the children to bring leaves of different shapes ; 
then direct them to assort and arrange them in piles, 
placing all the leaves of the same shape together. 

For one exercise, let all the pupils bring leaves that 
are heart-shaped, as those of the common violet, the 

* Suggestions that wiU aid in carrying out this exercise may be 
found in the chapters on Leaves in the "Child's Book of Nature," 
by Dr. Hooker. 



52 . DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 

basswood, curraut, etc. On another day let them 
bring aiTow-sliaped leaves; on anotiicr, egg-shaped 
leaves, and so on. Exercises of this kind can be va- 
ried so as to furnish many entertaining lessons. 

It may be remarked here that the names of forms 
ought not to be taught during these introductory ex- 
ercises, unless the pupils ask for them. The giving 
of the name to the child may be omitted until the 
forms are taken up in the subsequent lessons, and the 
ideas more fully developed. 

These introductory lessons are intended for children 
of four or five years of age, and they will indicate how 
parents may commence the early training of their chil- 
dren in a knowledge oi form y also suggest stej^s for 
the teacher to take when she finds her pupils ignorant 
of these simple ideas of shape. 

In commencing the lessons on form, the teacher 
should ascertain as soon as possible, by some prelimi- 
nary exercises, to what extent the child has already 
learned to observe and distinguish shapes, and how 
far it has become famihar with their names. As soon 
as this has been found out, let the exercises for that 
23upil begin at the point to which its development has 
already attained, and proceed gradually, taking care 
not to weary by too slow teaching on the one hand, 
nor to confuse by proceeding too rapidly. 

It is presumed, when the following lessons are pre- 
sented in school, that most of the children will have 
pre\dously acquired ideas of sides, corners, edges, 
straight, crooked, top, bottom, and similar parts and 
forms of objects. Wherever this knowledge is want- 



INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 53 

ing, however, stei3S should at once be taken to supply 
it before proceeding farther. 

It is impossible to be so minute in suggestions as 
to indicate precisely how each pupil should be train- 
ed, or where the exercises of every class should com- 
mence. Here the teacher's judgment is indispensa- 
ble. It is projDer to say, however, do not dwell upon 
that with which the child is already familiar ; but be- 
gin with what the child knows, and proceed by means 
of that to teach something that is not known to it. 

It does not interest the child to be told repeatedly 
what it already knows, but it does afford it pleasure 
to hear allusions to this knowledge, and to learn new 
facts which bear a relation to it. It also gives great- 
er pleasure to the mind to discover the fact than to be 
told it. It is evident, then, that the true process of 
training is to lead the child just far enough to enable 
it to obtain the idea or fact to be learned. 

Illustrate Form with common Objects.— It may 

be well to remark here, that during all of the lessons 
on form the interest of the learner should be kept up 
by a continued exhibition of things. At every lesson, 
in addition to the apparatus provided, several common 
objects should be shown to the pupils, and they be re- 
quired to name the different forms which the objects 
represent, as far as they have been taught their names. 
For this purpose, a book, a slate, pen, pointer, pencil, 
knife, table, stool, chair, bench, box, comb, window, 
and door, may be shown during exercises on the lines, 
and with forms and solids bounded by straight lines. 



54 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

A cent, a clime, a quarter, cnp, pail, ring, wheel, 
saucer, tumbler, bottle, pillar, stove-pipe, sidooh, can- 
dle, tub, bell, key, drum, cheese, egg, moon, cherry, 
apple, orange, and watch, may be shown during exer- 
cises on curved lines, circles, cylinders, etc. 

In all of these lessons the several things should be 
associated with each form, and a conversation had 
about the form while the things are before the eye.- 
It is not a proper development of the mind to show 
the object, and point out and name the shapes of it; 
the child must be taught to see the form, and tell its 
name himself. 

Herein lies the jDrincipal diiference between the two 
systems of teaching now in use. One continually tells 
the pupils, pours knowledge into the ear, and that not 
the best avenue to the mind, simply leading to ac- 
cumulation without use. The other leads the pupil 
to gather knowledge for himself by seeing, employing 
the best avenue to the mind, and continually requires 
him to icse it, and tell it, thus placing it entirely within 
his control, and rendering it available through life. 
One jDrocess makes the mind a j^assive recipient of 
knowledge, like a bag to be filled, leaving it almost 
as incapable of adding any knowledge to itself, as the 
bag of adding to its contents. The other trains the 
powers of the mind to activity, and accustoms it to see, 
and gather, and use knowledge. When thus trained, 
the mind is like a man who has become master of his 
trade, able to go forth in the world and accumulate 
for itself. 



STRAIGHT LINES. 55 



LESSON I * 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF STEAIGHT LINES. 

The teacher, holding a string straight between her 
hands, says, What have I in my hands ? "A string." 
How do I hold it ? " Straight." Now what can you 
say of it ? " It is crooked ; it bends." 

I will draw marks on the blackboard to represent 
this string as I hold it. [Makes two points, and draws 
a straight line between them ; then makes two more 
points, and draws a curved line between them.] 

Now one of you may come and point to the mark 

• • which represents the string when I 

hold it straight. 

Now point to the mark which 
represents the string when I hold 
it so that it bends. 

I will now make several marks, and I wish you to tell 
me which marks are straight and which are crooked. 

I hold a book in my hand. Does any part of it 
represent a straight mark? "Yes, the edges do." 
Tell me other things that represent such a mark. 
" The sides of a slate ; the edges of the desk." 

I will now tell you what to call these straight marks. 
What shall I tell you ? " What to call those straight 

* Although these lessons on form may be commenced as early 
as the child's fourth or fifth year,' yet, with the majority of chil- 
dren, all the ideas of figures that ar^ given here probably could 
not be mastered before the child is seven or eight years of age. 



00 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

marks." Straight marks are called straight lines. 
What are straight marks called? "Straight lines." 
[Pointing to straight lines on the blackboard, on the 
card, and in objects about the room] What is this 
Ime called? and this? and this? "Straight Ime." 
" Straight line." 

You say straight marks are called straight lines ; 
now what would you call crooked 
marks? '-'■Crooked lines.'''' [Point- 
ing to crooked lines.] What is this line called ? and 
this ? 

When I hold this string straight, what line does it 
represent ? If I hold it crooked, what line will it re^D- 
resent ? 

Note. — It will be obseiTcd that in these lessons the answers 
supposed to be given by the pupils are quoted ; this is dene that 
the questions and remarks of the teacher may be readily distin- 
guished from those by the learner. It is not presumed that the 
answers that will be given by the pupils will be in the same words 
as those introduced here. Our object is not to direct pi-ecisely 
what questions shall be asked and what ans^Tsrs should be given, 
but to illustrate how the teacher ought to proceed to develop cor- 
rect ideas of the subject, so that the pupils shall not only under- 
stand it, but be able to give such intelligent answers as will show 
that they do understand it. 



CUEVED LINES. 57 

LESSON II. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF CUEVED LINES. 

Pointing to a cnrved line on the card, or to one 
drawn upon the blackboard, the teach- 
er says, Here is a line that bends like 
a bow ; it bends alike in all its parts. I will hold this 
string so as to represent such a line. Is the string 
straight ? " No, it is crooked." How does it bend ? 
" Alike in all its parts." 

I will now make a line on the blackboard which 
shall bend alike in all its parts. The name for this 
line is a curved line. What is the name of this line ? 
" A cmwed line." How does a cnrved line bend ? 
" Like a bow." 

The teacher makes two points on the blackboard, 
and draws a straight line and a 
curved line between them. Which 
of these lines is the longest ? Let 
us measure them. You perceive that the curved line 
is longer than the straight line. 

Here is a crooked Hue between the same points. 
Now let us measure and see which line is the short- 
est. " The straight line." Can you make a shorter 
line than the straight one between these points, which 
shall extend from one point to the other ? Then what 
may be said of a straight line ? " It is the shortest 
line between two points." Very well ; but you may 
call it the shortest distance between two points. 
C2 



58 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 

What is a straight line ? 

"^ straight line is the shortest distance hettveen two 
points^'' 

Suppose I should pass this string around your hat, 
would it represent a straight line ? What line would 
it represent ? "A curved line." 

At this point it would be well to show the children 
how to make straight lines on their slates by the aid 
of a rule ; also how to make curved lines by the use 
of a string. Then give each pupil a rule and a string, 
and request them to make straight and curved lines 
on their slates while at their seats. 



LESSOR III. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF SUEFACE, PLANE AISTD 
CUEVED. 

[The teacher holds up an apple or an orange before 
the children.] What am I holding in my hand ? "An 
apple." What part of this apple do you see? "The 
skin." Where is the skin of the apple ? " On the 
outside of it." Instead of outside, say surface^ which 
means the outside. Where is the skin of the apple ? 
" On its surface." 

You walk on the surface of the floor ; you mark on 
the surface of your slates. On what part of the black- 
board do I mark ? " On its surface." On what part 
of the window-glass does the fly crawl ? " On its 
surface." That is right ; the outside of any thing is 



SURFACE, PLANE AND CURVED. 59 

its surface ; but a surface may have several parts ; 
such parts are called faces^ because they are the parts 
which we see. Now how many faces has this box ? 
" Six." 

How many faces has your slate ? " Two." How 
many faces do you see on the blackboard ? "I see only 
one." How many surfaces has this apple ? " One." 
How many surfaces has this sheet of paper ? " Two." 
How many faces has this brick ? Count them. " One, 
two, three, four, five, six j it has six faces." 

1. Plane Surface. — Now examine the surface of this 
apple, and the surface of this box, and tell me if they 
are alike. " The surface of the box is flat, and the 
surface of the apple is curved." Very good ; but when 
you see a flat surface, call it a plane surface / jjlane 
means flat. 

What kind of a surface has the blackboard ? "A 
plane surface." What kind of a surface has the wall 
of the room ? "A plane surface." Tell me other ob- 
jects which have plane surfaces. " The book-covers, 
the ceiling, the glass, the floor." 

2. Curved Surface.— What do you call the surface 
of the apple ? "A curved surface." What would 
you call the surface around your hat ? "A curved 
surface." 

ISTow tell me things that have curved surfaces. 
" Pails, cups, oranges, stove-pipes, barrels." 

Can you mention some object that has two plane 
faces and one curved face f " A drum, a barrel." 



60 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

LESSON IV. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF AN ANGLE. 

[The teacher draws two straight lines on the black- 

board.] What have I done ? "Drawn 

' two straight lines." What kind of 

lines are they ? " Straight lines." 

[The teacher now draws two more straight lines, 
meeting in a point.] What have I done 
now ? " Drawn two more straight lines." 
What difference do you observe between 



the first two lines and these ? " The last two lines 
come together, or meet; the first two lines did not 
meet." 

[Teacher holding up a -psar of scissors.] What is 
this ? "A pair of scissors." 

[Pointing to the blades.] What are these parts 
called ? " The blades." What did you say the last 
two lines do ? " The last two lines meet." Now 
what can you say of these blades ? " The blades 
meet." 

Look about the room, and tell me what parts of it 
meet. " The floor and walls ; the side walls and the 
end walls ; the walls and the ceiling." 

Do you observe any lines that meet in the windows '? 
" Yes, the wood of the wmdow-frame at the corners of 
each pane of glass." 

[Opening the scissors.] What am I doing ? " Open- 
ing the scissors." Yes, I open the scissors ; now what 



THE IDEA OF AN ANGLE. 61 

would you call this space between the blades ? " The 
opening." 

[Opens the blades to the full extent, then nearly 
closes them.] Is each opening of the same size? 
" Sometimes it is large, and sometimes small." 

I will draw some lines on the blackboard to repre- 
sent these blades when open. One of you may come 
and show me the opening between these lines. Now 
show me the place where the lines meet. 

You observe that these lines meet in a point. I 
will now give you a name for an oj)ening between two 
lines which meet in a point. For what am I to give 
you a name ? " For an opening between two lines 
which meet in a point." Show me such an opening 
in some part of the room. 

When the children are able to point out the angles 
in the room, calling them " openings," the following 

definition may be given : 
The openi7ig between 
two lines which meet in a 
point is called an angle. 



This definition should be repeated several times by 
the class, also by the pupils singly. 

[Pointing to an angle.] What is this ? " An angle." 
Why do you call this an angle ? " Because it is an 
opening between two lines which meet in a point." 
Point to some angles in the room. 

[The teacher now draws angles of various sizes on 
the blackboard.] Look at these angles, and tell me 
what you observe. " They differ in size." 

Come and show me the largest angle on the board. 
Which is the smallest? 



62 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

How many lines have I used to form an angle? 
"Two." 

What must these lines do to form an angle ? " Meet 
in a point." 

Can I make more than one angle with two lines ? 

Come and try it with this angle. You see that 

by extending one of the lines beyond the 

23oint where they meet, two angles will be 

formed, thus : 

N"ow if you will extend the other line be- 
yond the point of meeting, it will form four angles, 

thus : 

Here are two lines [pointing to an angle] making 
one angle. What must I do to make two angles from 
this ? " You must extend one of the lines beyond the 
point of meeting." 

Here are two lines [pointing to another angle] mak- 
ing one angle. What must I do to make four angles 
from this ? " You must lengthen both of the lines so 
that they will cross each other." 

The teacher, having provided several narrow slips 
of pasteboard, or small sticks, gives two to each pu- 
pil, saying, " You may take these sticks to your seats 
and make angles with them; also draw angles on. your 
slates." 

This will, perhaps, prove the most interesting part 
of the exercise to the pupils, and that very interest 
will fix the instruction which has just been given to 



EIGHT, ACUTE, AND OBTUSE ANGLES. 68 

them about angles more thoroughly in their minds 
than an hour's drilling in the class could do. Besides, 
the primary teacher finds great difficulty in keeping 
children employed between their lesson exercises ; this 
plan will furnish a profitable and pleasing employment 
for the time usually wasted in idleness and mischief, 
and will prevent much annoyance to the teacher. 



LESSON V. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF RIGHT, ACUTE, AND OBTUSE 

ANGLES. 

"What did you learn in your last lesson about an- 
gles ? " How angles are formed ; that they are of 
difierent sizes, and that we can make one, two, or four 
angles with two lines." 

ISTow observe me. " [Draws a horizontal line on the 
blackboard.] What have I done ? " Drawn a straight 
line." [Draws a perpendicular line to meet the hori- 
zontal line in the middle.] What have I done 
now ? " Drawn another straight line, which 
meets the first line, and forms two angles." 
What do you observe in these angles ? [Points to 
others on the card of forms.] " They are of the same 
size." Yes, they are equal. When you see two an- 
gles of the same form and size, call them equal angles. 

1. Right Angles.— [The teacher calls two pupils 
to her, places one at her right side, and the other at 



64 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

her left side.] How have I i3lacecl these gMs ? " On 
each side of you." Where am I ? " Between them." 

;N"ow show me a Hne between two angles. What 
can you say of the position of these two angles ? 
" They are on each side of the line." What can you 
say of their size ? " They are equal." 

Now I will tell you a name for these angles. They 
are called right angles. What are these angles call- 
ed ? " Right angles." 

Wheji a line meets another so that the angles on 
each side of it are equals such angles are right angles. 

Let the class repeat this several times, also the pu- 
pils singly. 

[Pointing to right angles on the card.] What do 
you call these angles ? " Right angles." 

ISTow show me right angles in the window and 
about the room. 

2. Acute Angle. — [The teacher draws two lines 
making an acute angle.] Is this a right 
angle ? " It is smaller than a right an- 
gle." What must I do to ascertain 



whether it is a right angle or not ? " Tou must 
lengthen one of the lines where they meet, so as to 
make two angles." I have done so ; what now ? 
" These two angles are not of the same size, so nei- 
ther can be a right angle." 

How do these angles differ from a right angle? 
" The first is smaller than a right angle, the other is 
larger than a right angle." 

One of you may come here and make an angle 



RIGHT, ACUTE, AND OBTUSE ANGLES. 05 

smaller tlian a right angle. Now make one larger 
tlian a right angle. Would you like to know the 
name for this small angle ? 

For what angle do you wish a name ? " For an 
angle* that is smaller than a right angleP 

An angle that is smaller than a right angle is 
called an acute angle. 

What is an acute angle ? " An angle that is small- 
er than a right angle is an acute angleP ISTow make 
a right angle with your two fore-fingers ; make acute 
angles with your fingers. 

3, Obtuse Angle. — How many kinds of angles do 
you know? "Two." What are 
they called ? " Right angles and 
acute angles." How do these an- 
gles differ ? " The acute angle is 
smaller than the right angle." Show me these angles 
on the card. 

[The teacher points to an obtuse angle on the card.] 
What can you say of the size of this angle ? " It is 
larger than a right angle." 

One of you may come and make an angle on the 
board like this. You want a name for this angle also. 
For what kind of an angle do you want a name ? 
" For an angle that is larger than a right angle." 

An angle that is larger thaii a right angle is called 
an obtuse angle. 

* It will be observed that the plan of these lessons is to show- 
first the idea of the form, so that the child understands it, and 
then to teach it the name. 



6Q DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOKM. 

You observe tliat a right angle lias a square cor- 
ner, and that an acute angle has a sharj? corner ; but 
that an obtuse angle has neither a square nor a sharp 
corner, but a bhmt one. 'Now tell me what an obtuse 
angle is. " An angle that is larger than a right an- 
gle." 

[The teacher now draws ujdou the board several 
angles of each kind, right, acute, and obtuse; then 
points to them, also to the same kind of angles on the 
card.] What angle is this ? and this ? and this ? 
[The pupils answer, telling the name of each.] 

K'ow make all of these angles with your fingers, 
imitating me. 

Now imitate with your fingers the angles that I 
make with these scissors. 

The teacher may now give the children the sticks 
to take to their seats, as before, with which to make 
these angles. Also tell them to make the angles on 
their slates. The gonigrapli is adapted to illustrate 
these lessons on andes. 



LESSON YI. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF TEIAXGLES. 

One of you may come here, take these two sticks, 
and see if you can make a pen around the inkstand 
with them. You can't do it ? Well, how many sticks 
must you have to make a pen? "Three." Now 
make three lines on the blackboard to represent your 




TRIANGLES. 67 

pen. What kind of angles do these three 
lines form ? " Acute angles." 

Can you inclose a space with two straight 
lines ? " No, we must have three." Here 
are two short sticks and one long one ; make a pen 
with these, j^ow tell me what kind of angles you 
have formed. " One right angle and two acute an- 
gles." 

Shall I tell you the name for a figure with three 
angles ? 

All figures with three angles are called tri-angles. 
Tri means three, and tri-angle means a figure with 
three angles. What do you call figures with three 
angles? "Tri-angles." 

What must you have to form a triangle ? " Three 
hues." How must those lines be placed ? " So as to 
form three angles." 

1. Eqiilateral Triangle.— [Teacher points to an 
equilateral triangle on the card.] What 
can you say of the size of these angles ? 
" They are all of the same size ; they are 
equal." What can you say of the lines ? 
" They are all of equal length." 

Now what would you call this figure ? " An equal 
triangle.'''' That is not a bad answer ; but I will tell 
you Avhat it is called in the books, and by learned 
men. It is an equilateral triangle. This is a hard 
word, but I think you can remember it. You ob- 
serve that the sides of the angle are all equal ; equi- 
lateral means equal-sided. All its sides are of the 
same length. 




68 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

Now I will show you how to mak« such a triangle 
with a stick and a string. Take a string, and tie the 
ends to the ends of a straight stick one half as long 
as the string; then hold the stick in one hand, and 
take hold of the middle of the string with the finger 
of the other hand, and pull it tight, and you will have 
an equilateral triangle. By moving the finger near- 
er to one end, it will form a fight-angled triangle. 
These are called right-angled triangles 
because one of the angles is a right 
angle. 

Here are some sticks which you may take to your 
seats, and with them make triangles like those which 
you see on the card of forms ; and after you have 
made all of them with the sticks, I wish you to draw 
them on your slates. 




LESSON YII. 

POSITIOX OF Llis^ES — PEEPEXDICULAE AND HOEI- 
ZOXTAL. 

The teacher places sticks in the hands of the pupils, 
and requests them to hold their sticks in an upright 
position, imitating her. She then holds them horizon- 
tally, and the pupils imitate it ; then in a perpendicu- 
lar position again. 

Now she proceeds to draw several straight lines on 
the blackboard to represent the position in which the 
sticks are held — perpendicular and horizontal lines. 

What have I done ? " Drawn some straight lines." 



PERPENDICULAE AND HORIZONTAL LINES. 69 

In what are these lines alike ? " They are all straight." 
How are they not alike ? " They go in different di- 
rections." 

1. Perpendicular Line. — [Draws a line across the 
slate.] In what direction have I drawn this line? 
" Across the slate." I will draw another to meet it. 
What have I now made ? "A right angle." In what 
direction must a line be drawn to form a right angle 

with a line across the slate ? " It must be up and 
down — upright." Call it 'A. perpendicular line. What 
shall we call an upright line ? "A perpendicular 
line." ISTow I wish you to repeat this : A line that 
makes a right angle loith another is called a perpen- 
dicidar line. 

Which part of the slate represents the perpendicu- 
lar line ? " The side." What parts of the room are 
in a perpendicular position ? " The walls or sides." 
To what are the walls perpendicular? "The walls 
are perpendicular to the floor." 

Tell me other perpendicular lines that you see about 
the room. 

Now take these sticks, and place them in a position 
perpendicular to the floor. Let each pupil hold a 
stick in a perpendicular position. When does a man 
represent this position ? " When he stands upright." 

2. Horizontal Lines.— [The teacher ties a string to 
some heavy object, as a piece of lead or iron.] You 
observe that this string hangs straight from my hand 
toward the floor. What kind of an angle does it make 



70 DEVELOPmG IDEAS OF FORM. 

with the floor? "It makes a right angle with the 
floor." 

[Draws a chalk line on the floor, and holds the 
string over it so as to touch it.] What kind of an 
angle does the string make with this chalk line ? "A 
right angle." When we snsi3end a weight above a 
surface, thus, and the surface makes a right angle 
with the string, we say the surface is )iorizontat, 

Now I will draw a Hue on the blackboard, 

and hold this string perpendicularly above it, and if 
it forms a right angle with the string, the line must 
be horizontal. What is the result ? " The line forms 
a right angle ; it is horizontal." A line is called hori- 
zontal because it is level or even with the horizon. 

Xow let us see if the top of the desk is horizontal. 
" !N"o, it does not form a right angle with the string." 
Let us try the table. " Yes, the tojD is horizontal ; it 
forms a right angle with the string." 

What did you say of the walls of the room ? "They 
are perpendicular to the floor." What can you say 
about the position of the floor? " It is horizontal." 

You learned something about two kinds of lines in 
your first lesson. Can you tell ine what those lines 
are called ? " Straight lines and curved lines." 

You have also learned two positions in which the 
straight lines may be placed. What are those posi- 
tions ? " Perpendicular and horizontal." 

N^ow request the pupils to hold the straight sticks 
in these several positions, as you call the name of the 
position. 



SLANTING LINES. 71 

LESSON yiii. 

SLANTING LINES. 

You have already learned about two kinds of lines, 
and the two directions in which they may be placed. 
What are these two kinds of lines ? " Straight lines 
and curved lines." Show nie a straight line on the 
card ; now a curved line. 

What are the two directions in which the straight 
lines may be placed? "Perpendicular and horizon- 
tal." Show me a perpendicular line ; now a horizon- 
tal one. 

[The teacher draws several lines in each of the po- 
sitions, and requires the children to represent the po- 
sition of each by holding the straight sticks. She then 
points to the lines, requiring the pupils to name those 
in positions which are perpendicular and horizontal.] 
Here are some lines that are neither perpendicular 
nor horizontal. What will you call them ? 
Slanting or oblique lines. Did you ever 
see a house which had slanting lines ? 
"Yes, a house mth a slanting roof." 
Why is the roof made to slant ? " So that the water 
may run off*." 

Do all slanting lines lean in the same direction? 
" No, they slant in different directions." How does 
this slant? "From the right toward the left." And 
this ? " The same way." And this ? " From the 
left toward the right." 




72 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 

What can you say of this line which I have just 
made ? " It slants from left to the right." What of 
this ? " It slants from right to the left." 

Xow tell me in what positions straight lines may 
be placed, and in doing so I wish you to represent 
each position with these straight sticks. "Straight 
lines are either ^:)e7pe?ic?2C2<^ar, horizontal., or slanting. 
Slanting lines may lean or incUne from left toward the 
right, or from right toward the left." 

N'ow, as I call for these different positions of straight 
Hues, I wish all of you to represent them by holding 
your sticks in the jDositions named — horizontal., slant- 
ing., perpendicular., slanting., horizontal., perpendicu- 
lar, ISTow take your slates and draw these lines. 



LESSON IX. 

PARALLEL LINES. 

[The teacher draws with a rule parallel perpendicu- 
lar hues, parallel horizontal lines, and parallel curved 
lines with a string.] What are these ? " Straight 




and cuTved lines." What more do you observe? 
" Some are jjerpendicular, some are horizontal, and 



PARALLEL LINES. 73 

some are curved." Any thing more ? " Some are 
slanting ; yoii have placed two of each kind together." 

[The teacher lengthens all of these lines.] What 
have I done ? " Made the lines longer." Examine 
them, and see if they come nearer together. [Length- 
ens them still more.] What do you observe ? " The 
lines are still the same distance from each other." 

If I should continue adding to these lines, would 
they ever meet ? If any pupil thinks these lines will 
meet by extending them, let him come and try it. 
You find that they will not meet. 

Now observe me. I am measuring the distance 
between these two lines at difierent parts. What is 
the result ? " The distance between them is every 
where the same." 

[The teacher measures other Imes, or, what is bet- 
ter, calls upon pupils to measure them, and learn that 
the distance between them is uniform at different 
parts.] Now I will tell you a name for these hues, 
which you see are equally distant from each other in 
all their parts. 

Lines lohich are equally distant from each other in 
all their ]jarts are called parallel lines. 

Parallel is another hard word, but I think you can 
remember it when I tell you that it means hy the side 
of. Parallel lines are lines by the side of each other. 

Can you show me parallel lines in the writmg-book ? 
" Yes, the ruled lines are parallel." 

What lines are parallel on the slate-frame ? " The 
two sides, and the two ends." What lines are paral- 
lel in the door ? 

D 



74 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

What other names may be applied to the sides 
of the door ? " They are ])erpendicular parallel 
Hnes." 

Now you may take these sticks and place them 
parallel to each other ; then draw lines on yom' slates 
to represent them. 



LESSON X. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF A SQIJAEE, A EHOMB, AND 
A PAEALLELOGEA]M. 



[The teacher draws a square on the 
blackboard.] What have I done ? " Made 
a square." How many straight lines did I 
use ? " Four." How many straight lines 
did I use to make a triangle ? " Three." 

Could I make a square with less than four straight 
lines ? " No." What do you observe in this figure 
on the board ? " All its sides are equal, and all its 
angles are right angles." Very good. 

Now tell me what book resembles this form. "The 
geography." What do these four lines which form 
the square show ? " Its shape." Does the square 
extend beyond these lines ? " No." Then these lines 
mark the bounds of the square, so we may call them 
the boundaries of the square. 

What do the lines of this square on the board 
show ? " The boundaries of the square." What do 
the lines of the triangle mark ? " The boundaries of 
the triangle." Now you may describe a square. 




SQUARE, RHOMB, AND PARALLELOGRAM. 75 

A square is houiided by four equal sides^ and has 
four right angles. 

2. Rhomb. — [Points to a rhomb on the card ; shows 
the form.] How many angles has this 
figure ? " Fom\" What can you say 
of its sides ? " It has four equal sides." 

You say it has four angles and four equal sides ; now 
is it a square ? " It is not a square." 

How does it differ from a square ? " The angles 
are different. The angles of a square are all right 
angles y none of the angles in this figure are right an- 
gles." What kind of angles has this figure ? " Two 
acute angles and two obtuse angles." 

What more do you observe ? " Its oj^posite angles 
are equal — two of each of its angles are alike and 
equal. It looks like a square leaning over." What 
would you call it ? "A leaning square." That is an 
appropriate name, but the name by which such a fig- 
ure is called is a rhomb. Now what is this figure 
called ? [pointing to a rhomb on the card.] 

Here is a rhomboid. What does it look like ? 
. y How does it differ from a rhomb ? 

/ / You may make a rhomb and a 

^ ^ rhomboid on your slates. 

3. Parallelogram.— [Draws a parallelogram on the 
board.] Here are squares, and rhombs, 
and rhomboids on the board, and now I 



have drawn another figure. Is this a square or a 
rhomb ? " It is not either." Does it look like either ? 



76 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM, 

" It looks most like tlie square." How is it like the 
square ? " It has four right angles." 

How does it differ from the square ? " It is longer 
in one way than the square. Its sides are not equal." 

What do you call a square ? "^4 figure that has 
four equal sides and four right angles^ 

How does a rhomb differ from a square ? "-/I 
rhorah has equal sides, but unequal angles.'''' 

Observe this figure again, and tell me whether any 
of its sides are equal ? " Yes, its opposite sides are 
equcd, and they are paralleV 

This figure is called a parallelogram, because its 
opposite sides are equal and parallel. Do you see any 
thing in the room that resembles a parallelogram ? 
" Yes, slates, tops of the desks, sides of books." 

How many angles has a parallelogram ? " Four." 
What kind of angles has this figure ? " Right angles." 
Then we will call it a right-angled parallelogram. 

What may you call the shape of the door ? "A 
right-angled parallelogram." Tell me other objects 
that have this shape. " Window-glass, table, black- 
board." 

Frequent use should be made of the forms from 
the box during all of these exercises. 

Here are six sticks for each, two long ones and four 
short ones. You may take these to your seats and 
make parallelograms, squares, rhombs, and rhomboids ; 
also draw those figures that you see on the card on 
your slates. 




PYRAMIDS. 77 

LESSON XL 

PYRAMIDS. 

Place pyramids of tbree and of four 

sides before the children. Now look at 

this, and tell me how many sides it has. 

"Three." How many sides has this? 

• Fom\" 

James may tell me the shape of one of these sides. 

" Its shape is that of a triangle." Are the 

sides all of the same shape ? What more can 

you say about these sides ? " They all meet 

in a point." 

We call the bottom of a solid its lase. 
A solid is a body that has no hollow 
inside of it. What is the shape of the 
base of this sohd ? "It is a triangle." 
What is the shape of the base of this 
solid ? " It is square." How many triangles has this ? 
" Four." How many triangles has this ? " Three." 
How many sides has its base ? " Three." How many 
sides has the base of this which has four triangles for 
its sides ? " Four." 

Now you observe that you can tell how many sides 
the base has by counting the triangles. Now count 
the triangles on the side of this, and tell me how many 
sides its base has. " Three." Now count the sides. 
Would you hke a name for these solids ? I will 
tell you one. They are called Pyramids. [Holding 




78 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

112^ the triangular pyramid.] Henry may tell me the 
shape of this pyramid. " It has three triangles for its 
sides, and a triangle for its base." 

William may describe this pyramid. " It has fom* 
triangles for its sides, and fom- sides for its base." 

[Holding a cone before the pupil.] Here is a sohd 
that comes to a point at the top somewhat like the 
pyramid. Can you tell me the difference in the sides 
of the two figures ? " One has a curved side, and the 
other has flat sides." 

Suppose now you should see a pyi*amid with five 
triangles for its sides, how many sides would its base 
have? "Five." 

The teacher should show the children pictures of 
the Egyptian pyramids, and talk about them in a fa- 
mihar manner. 



LESSOI^ XII. 



[The teacher places before the children parallelo- 
grams, squares, triangles, and triangular and square 
prisms.] Takes up a parallelogram, and inquires what 
it is called. How many angles has it ? What kind 
of angles are they ? 

Holds up a triangular prism, and asks. How 
many sides has this? "Three." What can 
you say of their shape ? " They are all alike, 
and all parallelograms." 




PRISMS. 79 

What can you say of the ends ? " They are alike, 
and both ends are triangles." Now if you were going 
to make a figure like this, how many parallelograms 
would you take ? " What would those three parallel- 
ograms form? " The three sides." What would you 
take for the ends ? " Two triangles." 

Here is another figure. How does it difier 
from the other ? " This has four parallelograms 
for its sides, and squares for its ends." How 
many sides has it ? " Four." How many sides 
has its ends ? " Four." 
How many sides has the other figure ? " Three." 
How many sides has its ends ? " Three." 

What, then, can you say about its ends ? " The 
ends have as many sides as there are parallelograms 
in the figure." 

Now I will give you the name for these solids. They 
are called jonsms. 

What is the shape of the side of a prism ? "A 
parallelogram." Upon what does the shape of the 
ends of the prism depend ? " Upon the number of 
parallelograms there are in its sides." 

Did you ever see a prism of glass ? Let the teach- 
er show a prism, and let each pupil look at objects 
through it. She may also give them slips of paste- 
board, cut in the form of parallelograms, triangles, 
and squares, for them to place together in the shape 
of prisms ; or, what would be better, cut the paste- 
board as indicated in the diagram No. 5 on page 48, 
and let the pupils bend it so as to form the shape of 
the triangular prism. 




80 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 



LESSON XIII. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF A CUBE AND OF CUBICAL 
FOEil. 

[Holding up a cube.] How many sides has the ob- 
ject which I now hold in my hand ? Count 
them. " One, two, three, four, five, six ; it 
has six sides." 

What do we sometimes call the sides or 
surface of objects ? "We call them /aces." Very 
well ; what is the shajDC of these faces ? " They are 
all flat, or plane, and square." What can you say of 
the size of these faces ? " They are all equal." 

What more can you say of this object? [Points 
to the corners, angles, and edges.] " It has eight cor- 
ners ; all the angles are right angles ; it has twelve 
straight edges." 

Did you ever see any thing else that resembled this 
form? "Yes; soap-boxes, chests of tea, boxes of 
goods." This object, you observe, has six equal 
square sides ; its name is a cuhe. 

What is a cube ? " An object with six equal square 
sides." 

Many objects with six sides resemble this in shape, 
but some of them are not cubes, because they have 
not six equal sides ; such objects are called cubical in 
form. 

What is the shape of the stove ? What other ob- 
jects can you mention that resemble this form? 



CIRCLE AND SEMICIRCLE. 81 

LESSON" XIV. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF A CIECLE AND SEMICIECLE. 

[Holding up a piece of money, or a Q ring.] What 
is the shape of this object? "Round." Can you 
mention any other objects with this form? "Hoops, 
wheels, plates, buttons." Call one • of the pupils to 
point to a figure on the card with the same form. 

[The teacher draws a circle on the blackboard with 
a string, holding one end of it tight against the board, 
while the other end is carried around on the surface 
of the board with a piece of chalk attached to it.] 
What have I. done ? " You have made a ring" — 
"made a round" — "made a circle," some 
may thus correctly answer. You may call it 
a circle. 

What do you call this line which forms the circle ? 
" A curved line." 

Will one of you come and draw a circle on the 
board as I did ? Two children might be called out 
to form a circle on the floor, one being required to 
place himself at the centre, and hold a string, while 
the other pupil holds the other end to a piece of chalk, 
and marks the floor as he passes around the centre. 
These practical illustrations greatly interest children, 
and fasten the subjects in their minds ; they should 
always, as much as is compatible with order, be actors 
in their lessons. 

Suppose a boy should tie a string to a post so loose- 
D2 




82 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 

ly that it would slip around it, and, taking hold of the 
other end, should walk around the post as far from it 
as the string would reach, what would be the shape 
of his path? "Cu'cular." 

Now look at this piece of money, and tell me what 
you observe. " It has flat sides or faces." 

What kind of a line represents the edge of this flat 
surface ? "A curved line." What does this curved 
line bound ? "A circle." 

Surfaces of this shape, bounded by curved lines, are 
called circular. Show me figures on the card that 
have a circular form. Mention objects that have this 
form. " The top of a hat — top and bottom of a pail 
— a button — door-knob — sun — moon." 

2. Semicircle, — Now I will draw a line through 
this circle on the board, and rub ofi* all on one side of 
it. What part of the ckcle is left ? " One half of 
it." Then what might we call this ? " Half a circle." 

Point to one like it on the card. 

Now find half a circle among the forms. 

Did you ever see any thing in the sky that resem- 
bled this shape ? " Yes, the moon." 

I will now tell you the name of this half circle ; 
it is called a semicircle. Semi means 
half., so that semicircle means what? 
" Half a circle." What is half a circle 
called ? " Semicircle." Show me a semicircle on the 
card of letters. 

You may draw circles and semicircles on your 
slates. 





CIRCUMFERENCE AND ARC. 83 

LESSON XV. 

CIECUMFEEENCE AND AEC. 

The teacher draws a drcle on the board, 
and asks, What have I made ? "A circle." 
What do we call this line ? "A curved line." 

What can you say of this curved line ? " It bounds 
a circle." 

Show me such a Hue on the card. Here is a cup ; 
can you show me such a line on it ? Show me such 
a line in other objects. 

The curved line that bounds a circle is called a eir- 
cumference. The figure bounded by the circmnfer- 
ence is called a circie. The circumference is the dis- 
tance around an object. 

Point to the circumference of the circles on the 
chart and on the blackboard. Where is the circum- 
ference of this ring ? of this apple ? of this cup ? of 
this hat ? of this button ? etc. 

2. Arc— What have I made on the board? "A 
short curved line." Suppose I should continue this 
curved line, what would it form ? " The circumfer- 
ence of a circle." Does this line form half of a cir- 
cumference ? " No." 

Here is a circumference. Now if you should take 
three or four of these short curved lines, could you 
make a circumference ? " Yes." Then what may we 
call this curved line ? "A part of a circumference." 



84 DEVELOPINa IDEAS OF FORM. 

^ ^ I will tell you a shorter name for a part of 

: ; a.circumference; it is calledan «?'c. What is 

"-■ ••' called an arc ? " A part of a circumference." 

Show me an arc on the card. Point to one on the 
blackboard. 

What have I in my hand ? "A paper ring," What 
does it represent ? " The circumference of a circle." 

If I cut off a part of it, what will it form ? " An 
aver 

The teacher should lead the children to distinguish 
between a semicircle and an arc by drawing several 
figures on the board, also by pointing to them on the 
chart, and by requiring the pupils to select each from 
forms, which may be cut from j)aper. The card of capi- 
tals and the letter cards may be used for an exercise in 
distinguishing the semicircle, circumference, arc, etc. 



LESSON XVI. 

CENTRE, RADIUS, AND DIAJMETER. 

[The teacher points to the circle on the card with a 
dot in the centre, or draws one on the board 
and makes a dot in the centre.] In what 
/ part of this circle is the dot ? " In the mid- 
dle." We call the middle of a circle its 
centre. What shall we call the middle of the circle ? 
" Its centre." 

Show me the centre of the circles on the chart and 
of those on the board. 




CENTRE, RADIUS, AND DIAMETER. 85 

Which part of the circumference is nearest to the 
centre ? " N^ot any part ; one part is just -as far from 
the centre as the other." Yes, the centre is equally- 
distant from all parts of the circumference of a circle. 
A point would not be called the centre if it was not at 
the same distance from all parts of the circumference. 

[Makes a point at one side of the centre of a circle.] 
Is this point the centre of the circle ? " ISTo." Why 
not ? " Because it is nearer to one part of the cir- 
cumference than it is to the other parts." 

The teacher should continue similar examples until 
the idea of centre is comprehended. 

2. Radius. — [Points to the radius of a circle.] 
^ What line is this? "A straight line." 

'' I \ In what part of the circle is it ? From the 
/ centre to the circumference." 

How many such lines would it take to 
reach across the circle ? " Two." Let us measure it 
and see. You are right. Then this line is one half 
of the distance across the circle. Now show me such 
lines in the circles on the board and on the chart. 

A straight line extending from the centre of a circle 
to its circumference is called its radius. 

If you should draw several lines from the centre to 
the circumference of a circle, all of those lines would 
be of the same length. 

When the boy holds the string which is fastened to 
the post, and walks around it, what does the string 
represent ? " The radius of the circle inclosed by the 
boy's path." 



86 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

3. Diameter. — [The teach er draws a line across 
,' "-s^ the ch'cle tlirougli its centre.] What have I 

f 5 clone ? " Drawn a straight line across the 

'n ,J circle." Through what part of the circle 

have I drawn this line ? " Through its centre." A 
line i^assing through the centre of a cu'cle is called the 
diameter of the ckcle. 

Now come and point to the diameters of these cir- 
cles on the " chart" and on the board. Where does 
the line representing the diameter begin ? " It begins 
in the circumference." " Where does it end ? " It 
ends in the circumference on the opposite side." 
Through what does it pass ? " Through the centre." 
N^ow take these strings and straight sticks, one 
string and one stick each, to your seats, and with 
your pencils draw circles on your slates as I did on 
the blackboard [shows them how to do it on their 
slates], and then place the stick across the circle to 
draw its radius and its diameter. 



lesso:n^ XVII. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF A CYLINDER AJSTD OF A 
CTLIXDEICAL r0R:iI. 

[Holding up a cylinder.] What do you 
observe in this object ? " It is round." 

Can you say any thing more about it? 
" It has circular, flat ends." 
What can you say of the surface of its sides ? "Its 
sides have a curved surface." 




CONE AND CONICAL FOKM. 87 

Tell me of something that resembles this object. 
" A stove-pipe — a round ruler — a pencil." 

This is called a cylinder. Any thing that resembles 
this in form may be called cylindrical^ or like a cylin- 
der. 

Did you ever see any thing growing in the field or 
forest that resembled this form in any of its parts ? 
" Yes ; trees — stalks of wheat — oats — sugar-cane." 

Suppose you wished to roll an object along the 
floor, which shape would you prefer, that of a cid)e or 
that of a cylinder ? " The form of a cyUnder." 

Now will you describe a cylinder? 

A cylinder has two plane^ circular ends, and one 
curved surf ade for its sides. 

If the idea of the form of a cylinder is not yet clear 
in the mind of the child, let other and similar illustra- 
tions be 2:iven. 



LESSON XYin. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF A CONE AND OP A CONICAL 
FOEM. 

I have here an object [holding up a cone] that 
somewhat resembles the cylindrical form, 
yet you observe that it is not a cylinder 
[showing a cylinder], because a cylinder is 
of the same size around throughout its en- 
tire length. How does this differ from a cylinder ? 
" It tapers to a point at one end." 




88 DEVELOPIXG IDEAS OF FOEM. 

Did either of you ever see the fruit or seed of a 
pine-tree? Well, can you tell me what that seed is 
called? " A cone." Which of the objects does it re- 
semble, the cylinder or the other ? " The other ob- 
ject." 

Now if this object is like a cone in shape, what 
would be a good name for it ? "A cone.'''' Yes ; all 
objects that are round or circular like a cylinder at 
one end, but which taper to a point, or nearly, at the 
other end, are called conical in form, because they re- 
semble the shape of the co7ie^ from which the name is 
derived. 

You observe that this cone will stand upon one end. 
What is the shape of that end ? " It is circular, with 
a flat or plane surface." 

2. Base, Solids, Apex.— This end upon which the 
cone stands is called its base., which means the bottom 
of a solid. 

A solid is a body that has no hollow or space in- 
side of it. This cube is a solid ; so is this cylinder 
and this cone. All such bodies are solids. Is a cup 
a solid ? " ISTo, because it is hollow on the inside." 
Mention a few solid bodies. What did I say the bot- 
tom of a solid is called ? '■'•Its haseP That is correct. 

The top of a cone is called its apex. Which end 
of the cone is its apex f " The small end, or top." 
Now describe a cone. 

"^ cone has aflat circular base for the bottom, and 
072e curved side exte7iding to a point at the top or 
apex^ 



SPHERICAL FORMS. 89 

[The teacher may make a cone of paper, and inquire 
if it is a solid. Then he may roll it and show how it 
turns round in a circle.] Would a cone be a good 
form for a body which you wished to roll ? 

What is the form of some church steeples ? What 
is the shape of a beet ? of a top ? Can you mention 
other objects which have a conical form ? 




LESSO]^ XIX. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF SPHEEICAL FOEMS. 

[Holding up a ball.] What is this? 
"A ball." What is its shape ? "Round." 
Here is a cylinder. You told me that 
this is round. Now are these two ob- 
jects alike? "No." How do they differ? "The 
cyhnder is round in only two ways, but the ball is 
round in every way." 

Mention other objects that are round in all direc- 
tions. " Grapes — currants — oranges — all balls — dew- 
drops." 

You say these objects are round like a ball when 

you describe them, but I will tell you a name for this 

shape which is better to use. A ball is a sphere. All 

objects that are round like a ball are 

spheres. If they are nearly round, 

like an apple or a peach, they are said 

to be spherical., or spheroids. 

What is the form of a plum? "A spheroid." 




90 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FORM. 

What is the form of a sphere ? " Round in all direc- 
tions." What, then, is the form of yom* marble ? 
" A sphere, or spherical." What is the shape of this 
globe ? "A sphere." 

Now look at this sphere, and tell me how many 
surfaces it has. " Only one surface." What is the 
shape of the surface ? " It is a curved surface." 

You told me the other day that a cylinder is a good 
form for an object which you wish to roll ; now which 
will roll more easily, a cylinder or a sphere ? "A 
sphere." 

Why will a sphere roll more easily than a cylinder ? 
" Because its surface is curved in all directions, while 
the surface of the cyHnder is curved in only two di- 
rections." 

Why are marbles made in the form of spheres? 
" So that they will roll easily in any direction." 

What parts of your body are of this shape ? " The 
eye, and the head." 

Mention other objects that have the shape of a 
sphere. " Turnips — onions — shot — beads — many 
kinds of seed — drops of water," etc. 

2. Hemisphere. — What would you call the shape 
of this apple ? "A sphere." I have cut it into two 
equal pieces. What part of the whole apple is this 
piece ? " One half of it." What part is this 
piece ? " One half." l^ow what part of a 
sphere is one of these pieces ? " One half of 
a sphere." 

Can you tell me the shape of this half of a 




OVAL. 91 

sphere ? " It has one circular flat face and one curved 
face." 

There is a word for this shape; shall I tell you 
Avhat that word is ? Well, first tell me what that 
word is the name of. " It is the name of one half of 
a sphere." Very good ; the name of half a. sphere is 
hemisphere. 

What is half of a sphere called ? "^ hemisphere^ 
Semi means half, so that hemisphere means half of 
a sphere. 

How many hemispheres can you make out of one 
sjDhere ? 




LESSOISr XX. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OP AN" OVAL. 

[Holding up an oval-shaped figure.] What have 
you seen of this shape ? " An Q^g^,P 

Very good. This shape was named 
after the ^g^. The Latins called the 
Q.'gg an ovum. We call this shape oval 
because it is like the shape of an ^gg. 

Here is a lemon, an apple, and a nutmeg ; what is 
their shape ? 

Are all apples of this oval shape ? " No ; some are 
like a sphere." 

[Draws an oval figure on the black- 
board, and makes a dot for the mid- 
dle.] What do we call the line which 
bounds this oval ? " The circumfer- 




92 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF FOEM. 

ence." What does this mark in the oval indicate? 
" Its middle." 

Are all parts of the circumference of this oval at 
the same distance from the middle ? What do you 
observe ? " The oval is longer in one direction than 
in the other." What would you call those parts of 
the oval which are farthest from the middle ? " Its 
ends." 

Several objects maybe shown and figures drawn to 
illustrate this shape. 



CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS. 

There should be a great variety of objects provided 
for illustrating the forms which are described, and the 
children should frequently be exercised in selecting 
and classifying those with similar forms. Whenever 
practicable, several objects should be shown to illus- 
trate each form, so that the child may not suppose 
that the name of the shape is the name of the object. 
It w^ould be well to call for the selection of objects by 
the names of their shapes ; then to take ujd objects and 
tell the names of their forms. 

Very little importance should be placed on repeat- 
iug the names of forms, but a great deal upon the act- 
ual selection and classification of the objects by their 
difierent shapes. It is the seeing and doing that per- 
fects knowledge in this department, not repetition of 
names merely. The three should be combined ; the 
child should be led to see, trained to do, and required 
to tell what it sees and does. 



CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS. 93 

It may be found that some of these lessons are too 
long for a single exercise, or too difficult to engage 
the attention of some children. When the first diffi- 
culty is encountered, the lesson may be divided at the 
sub-heads. Indeed, for young children, this course 
will be preferable, as the lessons should be very short. 
When, however, such divisions are made, the exer- 
cises under each sub-heading should be expanded by 
means of a greater variety of illustrations and com- 
parisons. 

When the lesson is found too difficult, the teacher 
should prepare the way for it by introducing a great- 
er number of lessons similar to those which precede 
the difficult one. Here, as in very many other in- 
stances, the judgment of the teacher must decide the 
precise steps to be taken. 

We have endeavored to point out the course to be 
pursued, and illustrate thQ pri7ici2oles on which a true 
system of training for the development of the faculties 
of children is based. The success of the teacher in 
using this system of training will depend upon her 
cibility to observe the course, and to modify mid adapt 
the plans for applying the principles to the conditio7is 
of her pupils. 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF DRAWING. 



"Doing can only be learned by doing; drawing by drawing; 
writing by \Triting ; painting by painting." — Comeneus. 



HOW DRAWIN^G MAY BE INTRODUCED 
INTO PRBIARY SCHOOLS. 

The ability to use the pencil or the pen, so that 
mth a few strokes of either one can represent to the 
eye that which he can not describe, is an acquisition 
the value of which is too well known to need any 
commendation here ; but that children may be trained 
to acquire this ability at school is not so generally un- 
derstood. 

It is believed by the ablest educators that children 
will learn to write in less time, if they are taught draw- 
ing and writing at the same time, than when taught 
writing alone. It was a saying of the great Swiss 
educator, Pestalozzi, that ^' without drawing there can 
be no writing." 

The use of the slate and pencil should not be post- 
poned for a single day after the child has entered the 
primary school ; indeed, the use of it should be learn- 
ed long before the child is sent to school at all. 

The teacher may introduce the subject of drawing 



HOW TO INTRODUCE DRAWING. 



95 



to her pupils by requesting them to draw upon their 
slates two lines in as many different positions as they 
can place them. That the children may understand 
this request, the teacher might illustrate some of the 
positions in which tioo lines can be placed by drawing 
them upon the blackboard in the following positions : 




Examples with two lines. 

At fii'st only a few of these positions should be 
shown, just enough to make the pupils understand 
what is desired of them. They should be encouraged 
to discover other positions for themselves by occasion- 
ally adding a new one to those shown at first. When 
the children have become familiar with, and can read- 
ily represent the several positions in which two lines 
may be placed, give them an exercise with three Imes. 




Examples with three lines. 
Request them to find how many angles can be made 



96 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF DRAWING. 



with three lines ; how many acute angles ; how many 
right angles ; how many obtuse angles. 

When the children have become familiar with the 
representations by these lines, proceed to give an ex- 
ercise with four lines. 



1 




W 


\A 


1 


/ \ 


\ 


1 
1 




Examples with four lines. 

How many right angles can be made with four 
lines ? How many acute angles ? How many obtuse 
angles ? 






Examples with five lines. 

By thus introducing an additional number of lines 
from time to time, the lessons may be continued to an 
almost indefinite extent ; yet care should be taken not 
to go so far as to confuse the learner. In each lesson, 
such figures should be drawn upon the blackboard as 
will be most likely to suggest other forms to the 
puiDils. 

The straight lines may be followed with figures 
composed of curved lines. The teacher should pro- 
ceed as with the straight lines. 



HOW TO INTRODUCE DRAWING. 



97 




Examples with curved lines. 

Another change in the exercise may be made by 
combining the straight and cm'ved lines, thus : 




o. 




A 



Examples with straight and curved lines. 



Exercise with these lines combined will readily sug- 
gest a very great variety of forms. Of course, the 
teacher will vary the mode of presenting this exercise 
whenever the interest in it flags, and make it both a 
means of amusement and development. 

It would be well if the pupils could learn to use the 
chalk and blackboard during these elementary draw- 
ing exercises. 

By the time the pupils have gone through with the 
preceding steps, they will have attained a sufficient 
command of the hand in the use of the pencil, and so 
trained the eye that it will readily distinguish differ- 
ent forms and positions of lines. Then the exercise 
may be varied by introducing drawings with the sim- 
plest outlines of plain objects for the children to copy. 
They will now be ready to use to advantage the ele- 
mentary drawing cards.* 

* The drawing cards best adapted for this early instruction are 
the modern ones with black ground and white lines. These fur- 
nish copies that resemble the drawings upon the slate. 



98 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF DRAWING. ' 

By a skillful introcluction of such lessons as the pie- 
ceding, the foundation for more scientific instruction 
in the art of drawing may be successfully laid, and as 
many children may become skillful in the use of the 
pencil in drawing as now become good writers from 
instruction in penmanship. 

The practice of drawing on slates should be inter- 
spersed with all the exercises of the primary school 
as one means of employment for the children while 
sitting on their seats, also as a recreation. Care should 
be taken not to have them come to regard these ex- 
ercises as tasks. 

Lessons of this kind, properly given, w^ill furnish 
constant practice in the knowledge which the chil- 
dren have acquired from the Xessons on Form ; be- 
sides, that knowledge will add interest to these draw- 
ing exercises, and these exercises will furnish excel- 
lent opportunities for reviewing the ideas developed 
in those lessons. 

These simple exercises will prove an excellent foun- 
dation for the subsequent course of instruction in 
drawing, and add great efficiency in obtaining a thor- 
ough knowledge of this important art. 



!mL:^^__^.__JW: 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 



IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING THE EYE. 

The senses are the doors and windows of the mind, 
and through them all its knowledge of the world is 
obtained. Through these same avenues all instruc- 
tion must j)ass, if it ever reaches the mind. Some 
kinds of knowledge are designed for entering at the 
doors, while others must pass through the windows. 
It becomes those, then, who would communicate with 
mind to consider how it can be most successfully 
reached, and which of the avenues is adapted to the 
kind of instruction that is desired to be conveyed. It 
would be folly to attempt to pass through a window 
that which was designed only for a door, or to carry 
through a door that which could more easily be pass- 
ed through the window. 

Strange though it may seem, just such foolish things 
are attempted daily by methods of instruction in com- 
mon use. Efforts are continually made to pour into 
the ear knowledge which God designed should enter 
at the window of the soul. To this error may justly 
be attributed most of the unsatisfactory results in ed- 
ucation. 



100 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Sight is the most nearly perfect of all our senses ; 
its concejDtions of whatever properties of objects can 
be seen are more vivid and complete than when ideas 
of the same properties are conveyed to the mind by 
either of the other senses. Horace understood the 
importance of this sense when he sang : 

" Sounds which address the ear are lost, and die 
In one short hour ; but that which strikes the eye 
Lives long upon the mind ; the faithful sight 
Engraves the knowledge with a beam of light." 

This principle should be heeded especially by in- 
structors of the young, and greater attention paid to 
teaching from things by sight, and less from words by 
hearing. Nevertheless, both should be combined, as 
one serves to aid the other, but never should one be 
allowed to take the place of the other. 

The subject which we now present is emphatically 
one for the sense of sight. A knowledge of color 
must pass through the window, or never reach the 
mind. 

One of the most striking qualities of objects of 
which sight takes cognizance is that of color. To 
teach this, the colors themselves must be shown. ISTo 
descriptions will convey any idea of them to one who 
has never seen a color, 

A blind man once told us that the best idea of black 
which he ever received was from a remark made to 
him one day by his little sister. She was describing 
some object that was black. Her mother, hearing her, 
remarked, "Your brother can not understand you; 



TRAINING THE EYE. 101 

he does not know what black is." " Don't yon know 
how black looks, brother? It looks like the darkest 
night that you ever saw." Nothing could have been 
more simple and better adapted to convey the idea of 
black to a blind man, yet to his mind it was only like 
something that could not be seen ; it gave him no defi- 
nite conception of black. 

Notwithstanding a knowledge of color is impor- 
tant in the various avocations of life, and a nice dis- 
crimination of it is a source of great pleasure to the 
mind, yet the subject is entirely neglected in our 
schools, whereas it should have a prominent place in 
primary instruction. 

It is a well-known fact that individuals possess in 
very different degrees the power of distinguishing 
not only shades of the same color, but the colors most 
strikingly opposed to each other. Indeed, the same 
color will be called by entirely different names by dif- 
ferent individuals. Comparatively few persons can 
distinguish a scarlet from a vermilion, or a crimson 
from a carmine. Many confound a blue with a green. 

Public attention has of late been directed to this 
subject of the difference in the power of distinguish- 
ing colors. Philosophical investigations have been 
made by Sir David Brewster, and Dr. George Wilson 
of Edinburgh, and others, which have resulted in the 
discovery that a deficiency in the power to discern 
color is more prevalent than was supposed. 

The name color-blindness has been given to this re- 
markable condition of sight. From calculations based 
on various examinations made in England and Scot- 



102 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

land, it appears that one person out of every fifteen is 
unable to distinguish all of the ordinary colors ; one 
in fifty-five confounds red with green; one in sixty 
brown with green ; one in forty-six blue with green. 

Of the three j^rimary colors, red appears to be the 
most difiicult to be distinguished ; it is the distracting 
color of the three. Some persons can not see it at all 
as a color, for it appears to them as black, but most 
commonly it is mistaken for green. Yellow is the 
color which least frequently escapes perception. There 
are but a very few persons, even among those who are 
called color-blind, that do not see yellow perfectly. 
A pure blue is in the next degree least likely to be 
mistaken, and with some it is the most vivid color of 
the three. 

When we combine the yellow and blue into a green, 
we have the greatest of all stumbling-blocks in color. 
Green is frequently mistaken for red, often for blue, 
by those who are color-blind. Those who can not dis- 
tinguish red regard purple as a blue ; not perceiving 
the red in orange, that color is called a yellow. 

Red and green are the two colors which are most 
commonly not distinguished, yet it so hapj^ens that 
these are the two colors used as signals on rail-roads 
and ships. This renders it most important that every 
person employed on rail-roads, whose position has any 
thing to do with signals, should be carefully tested as 
to his powers of distinguishing between the colors of 
red ahd green. A fearful catastrophe might occur 
from mistaking a signal imj)lying danger for one de- 
noting safety. 



TRAINING THE EYE. 103 

Bartholomew, the sculptor, could not distinguish 
between a crimson curtain and a green one. Yet he 
began his artistic career as a portrait painter, and once 
he gave the cheeks of a female sitter a hue of bright 
green. He put the two pigments upon his palette, 
and mistook the green for the red, and did not dis- 
cover his mistake until it was pointed out to him. 
Yet, blind as he was to the differences of color, he had 
the most exquisite perception of the beauties of form. 

The celebrated chemist. Dr. Dalton, thought the red 
gown in which he was installed as Doctor of Civil 
Law at Oxford was a blue one. Some of his friends, 
in order to test this peculiarity of his vision, substitu- 
ted red stockings for those he usually wore. The 
doctor put them on without noticing any thing re- 
markable in their appearance, and when his attention 
was directed to them he only said they looked rather 
dirty. 

How far this remarkable defect in distinguishing 
colors can be remedied by early training and careful 
education of the eye, it is imjoossible to answer from 
present experience ; but we know that by cultivation 
the ear may be rendered much more capable of per- 
ceiving and distinguishing sounds. Judging then 
from analogy, we may reasonably suppose that the 
eye also, by proper training, might be greatly im- 
proved in its power of discriminating colors. At all 
events, it is of sufficient importance and probability to 
deserve greater attention, and to render it highly im- 
portant that the subject of color should have a place 
in school training. 



104 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Preparations for Illustrating Color.— Before com- 
mencing the exercises on color, the teacher should 
make herself familiar with the descriptions of color 
given under the following head : " Classification, Com- 
bination, and Description of Colors ;" also, as far as 
possible, with the colors themselves. The "chart of 
colors" and " box of colors," colors in worsted, pieces 
of ribbon, three good water-colors representing red, 
yellow, and blue, colored crayons for the blackboard, 
a prism, wafers, colored paper, flowers, leaves, fruit, 
etc., etc., should be provided for illustrating these les- 
sons. The frontispiece will serve as a guide in select- 
ing the leading colors. 

If the teacher can not easily obtain more suitable 
apparatus for illustrating the lessons on color, she 
might j^rocure a large sheet of perforated paste"! -oard, 
and work upon it squares, each about two inches in 
size, with colored worsteds, leaving a space of an inch 
between the different squares. In this manner all the 
colors might be represented very well. The follow- 
ing descriptions of them would aid in selecting the 
worsteds. 



COLOES. 105 



CLASSIFICATION, COMBINATION, AND DE- 
SCRIPTION OF COLORS. 

All colors exist between the extremes of light and darkness. 
These extremes are represented by white on one side and black on 
the other. Light is transparency, darkness is obscurity. From 
white we pass to yelloio, which most nearly resembles light ; thence 
to red, the representative of warmth and life, the most perfect 
color; then to blue, which is related to shade or darkness, as yel- 
low is to light, and finally ending in black. 

In the rainbow are found the purest colors, and a key to the 
whole science of coloring. That is Nature's chart of colors, and 
the only true standard for artists and colorists. Newton first dis- 
covered that the sunlight can be separated by the prism into the 
seven colors seen in the rainbow, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, 
indigo, purple. It has since been ascertained that four of these 
colors — orange, green, purple, and indigo — can be produced by mix- 
ing the other three, red, yellow, and blue ; but these three can not 
be obtained by any mixtui'e of the other colors. 

Red, yellow, and blue are called the primary colors, because all 
the other colors, shades, hues, and tints, from light to darkness, 
may be produced by the combination of these three in different 
proportions, with the aid of their extremes, white and black, as 
modifiers. The addition of black to a color gives shades ; white 
gives tints. 

If we could obtain perfectly pure red, yellow, and blue, of equal 
depth of color, and combine them in their proper proportions, 
they would produce white. However, artists have not been able 
to secure these colors in a sufficiently pure state to obtain white by 
their mixture. Ultramarine is the purest representative of a pri- 
mary color known ; its lightest and darkest shades are pure blue. 
No paint or coloring material of red or yellow has been produced 
E 2 



106 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

without a slight mixture of one of the other colors. Even car- 
mine, the purest type of the prismatic red that color-makers have 
produced, contains some yellow. The color obtained by purest 
chrome yellow, or by gamboge, may be taken as the best represent- 
ative of the prismatic yellow. Yet so far do these materials for 
red and yellow fall short of being perfect primary colors, that a 
mixture of the three representatives of the primary colors produces 
only a gray. However, for practical purposes, carmine, chrome 
yellow, and ultramarine may be taken for the standards of red, yel- 
low, and blue. 

In the present state of our knowledge of color and light, it is 
difficult to answer satisfactorily the questions, "Why does grass 
appear green? Why are some apples red? Why do different 
things possess different colors ?" It might be interesting, at this 
point, to consider the wisdom of God in the beautiful and harmo- 
nious adaptation of colors in different objects ; but it must suffice 
for the present to give the usual scientific answer — all bodies ab- 
sorb certain colors and reflect others : thus, if a body is red, it ab- 
sorbs the yeUow and blue rays, and reflects the red ; if yellow, it 
absorbs the red and blue rays, and reflects the yellow ; if blue, it 
absorbs the red and yellow rays, and reflects the blue ; if green, it 
absorbs the red rays, and reflects the yellow and blue ; and so with 
the others : the colors which the body appears to possess are re- 
flected, the other colors are absorbed. 

[The following definitions and combinations of color are not de- 
signed to be communicated to the children during the period for 
which the lessons in this volume have been prepared. They are 
given here for a convenient reference to aid the teacher in con- 
ducting the exercises on color. It will readily be seen by their 
combinations which colors present the greatest contrasts, and are 
therefore best adapted for the first lessons in distinguishing colors ; 
also which most resemble each other, and thus suggest those to be 
selected for teaching shades, hues, and tints. The descriptions 
given of the colors and hues known by different names will aid in 
determining them by the eye. The use of the plate of colors will 
prove of great assistance in this study.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF COLOES. 



107 



CLASSIFICATION OF COLORS. 

Primary Colors.— Red, yellow, blue. 

A mixture of equal parts of two primary colors produces a sec- 
ondary color. 

Secondary Colors. — Orange, green, purple. 

A mixture of two secondary colors, or three primary ones in the 
proportion of two parts of one color and one part of each of the 
other two, produces a tertiary color. 

Tertiary Colors. — Citrine, olive, russet. 

The various combinations of the primary, secondary, and ter- 
tiary colors produce the 

Irregular Colors. — Browns, maroon, claret, chocolate, au- 
burn, chestnut, snufl", drab, gray, slate, etc. 

Shade. — The graduation of a color or hue in depth from its 
perfect state to a black, usually produced by the addition of black 
to a color. 

Hue. — A color made lighter by combining with it another color 
or hue in various proportions, as a little yellow mixed with pure 
red gives a scarlet, a hue of red. 

Tint. — The attenuation of a color by mixing with it white. 

Tinge. — A slight coloring or tincture distinct from the ground 
or principal color or hue. 



COMBINATIONS OF COLORS. 

See Frontispiece for Illustrations. 



Primary 


Secondary. 


Secondary. 


Tertiary. 


Red ^ 




Orange ' 


1 


and \ 


■ produce Orange. 


and \ 


- produce Citrine. 


Yellow ) 




Green j 


1 


Yellow ^ 




Green ' 


\ 


and \ 


• produce Green. 


and 


<■ produce Olive. 


Blue ) 




Purple j 


1 


Red 1 




Orange ' 


) 


and \ 


• produce Purple. 


and 


y produce Russet. 


Blue ) 




Purple ' 


1 



108 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF COLORS, SHADES, HUES, AND 
TINTS. 

Hues of Primary Colors. 
Pure RED. — CAnanNE, the purest deep red. 

Crimson — pure red, with a slight tinge of blue, giving it a 
purplish shade : the common color of red apples. 

ScAELET — a bright red, with a slight tinge of yellow. 

Vermilion — a brilliant yellowish red ; it contains more yel- 
low than scarlet. 

Venetian Red — the darkest shade of the reds ; a dark, dull 
red, approaching the red browns : a common name applied 
to a paint made of earth. 

Pinh — tints of crimson. 

Rose — tints of caimine. 

Flesh Color — light tint of scarlet. 
Pure YELLOW. — Chrome yellow, a rich deep yellow. 

Canary — a light hue of chrome yellow, the color of the ca- 
nary-bird. 

Sulphur — a yellow with a bluish tinge ; a cold yellow. 

Saffron — a deep yellow with a slight reddish tinge. 

Straiv — a deep tint of pure yellow. 

Primrose — a very light tint of pure yellow. 

Lemon — a gi'eenish shade of yellow. 

Ochre — a dusky yellow ; sometimes it has a reddish tinge. 
Pure BLUE. — Ultramarine, the deepest blue. 

Cobalt Blue — next in purity to ultramarine, but not so 
deep a blue. 

Prussian Blue — a dark blue with a slight greenish tinge, 
from its containing a minute portion of yellow. 

Indigo — a very deep shade of blue with a slight purplish 
tinge ; a shade between the darkest blue and the darkest 
purple. 

Mazarine — a deep purple blue. 

Azure, or Sky-blue — the light clear blue of the sky ; a tint of 
ultramarine. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF COLOES. 109 

Hues of Secondary Colors. 
ORANGE. — Equal parts of pure red and yellow. A redder 

orange is produced by mixing three parts of yellow with 

eight parts of red. This name comes from the color of the 

fruit when ripe. 
Amber Color — a shade of yellowish orange. 
Buff — a yellowish orange, and several of its deeper tints. 
Salmon — a tint of reddish orange. 
Cream Color — a tint of yellow orange. 
GREEN.— Equal parts of pure blue and yellow; the brightest 

grass green. A darker green is produced by mixing three 

parts of yellow with eight parts of blue. 
Sea Greek — a dark shade of green with blue predominating. 
Oliye Green — a very dark shade of yellow apple green. 
Apple Green — a yellowish green. 
Emerald Green — a very rich green, usually of a light color : 

the color of a precious stone. 
Pea Green — a tint of grass green. 
Tea Green — a tint of olive green. 
PURPLE. — Equal parts of pure blue and red. A darker pui-ple 

is produced by mixing five parts of red with eight parts of 

blue ; this, however, becomes a shade of violet. 
Royal Purple — the purest purple ; it has a reddish tinge. 
Violet — a purple with a bluish tinge. 
Lilac — a tint of pure purple. 
Lavender — a light tint of violet. 
Peach-blossom — a very light tint of reddish purple. 

Tertiary Colors. 

CITRINE. — Equal parts of green and orange united ; or two 
parts of yellow, one of red, and one of blue. Yellow is the 
ruling color — a greenish dark yellow. This name is from 
the citron, a fruit somewhat resembling the lemon. 

OLIVE. — Equal parts of green and pui-ple united ; or two parts 
of blue, one of red, and one of yellow. A dusky shade of 
yellowish green. 



110 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

RUSSET. — Equal parts of orange and purple united; or two 
parts of red, one of blue, and one of yellow. A light red- 
dish brown ; the red predominates. This color is seen on 
russet apples. 

Sues of Irregular Colors. 

BROWNS. — Shades, hues, and tints produced by mixing red, 
yellow, and blue in different proportions. These are called 
dark browns, deep browns, red browns, gold browns, light 
browns, etc., according to the prevailing color. 

Maroon — a red brown with a puiple tinge. 

Claret — a lighter hue than the maroon. 

Chocolate — a dark reddish brown. 

Auburn — a very dark shade of red orange, or a brown with 
red predominating. This name is applied to hair. 

Snuff— a brown with yellow predominating. 

Umber : this color is classed with the browns. Raw umber 
gives a yellowish hue ; burnt umber a reddish hue. 

Tan Color — a tint of red brown. 

Drab — a tint of a dull brown. 
GRAY. — Equal parts of red, yellow, and blue united, or mix- 
tures of white and black. 

Pearl Gray — a light hue of gray. 

Steel or Iron Gray — dark shades of gray. 

Slate — a shade of pearl gray. 

Colors as applied to Horses and Cattle. 

Bay horse — a reddish brown. 

Chestntjt horse — a shade of reddish brown. 

Sorrel horse — a light yellowish brown. 

Cream Color horse — a light yellowish orange. 

Roan horse — a prominent mixture of white hairs with either 

of the preceding colors. 
Gray horse— a mixture of white and black or brown hairs, 

usually with the white hairs greatly predominating. 
Red cattle — a redder brown than a bay. 



HARMONY OF COLORS. Ill 

Brindle cattle — a mixture of light and dark browns, or 

brown and black in stripes or spots. 
Dun cattle — a very light hue of dull brown. 
Fawn-color — a tint of chestnut. 

HAKMONY OF COLORS. 

Among colorists it is an axiom that every color, when placed 
beside another, is changed in appearance ; each modifies the one 
with which it is in proximity. It is the observance of this law, or 
the violation of it, in dress, in the decorations and furniture of a 
room, and in the arrangement of flowers in a bouquet, that consti- 
tutes the chief distinction between taste and the lack of it in these 
departments. True taste, therefore, is the observance of philo- 
sophical laws ; and it is these laws that determine what colors are 
" becoming to" certain complexions ; also, which colors harmonize 
in the decorations of a room. As illustrations of this law, we will 
mention the effect of a few colors in dress upon the complexion of 
the wearer. 

Rose can not be put in contact with the rosiest complexions 
without causing them to lose some of their freshness. 

Green of a delicate hue is favorable to all fair complexions which 
are deficient in rose. 

Yellow imparts violet to a fair skin : it best suits brunettes. 

Violet imparts a greenish yellow to a fair complexion : it is one 
of the least favorable colors to the skin. 

Blue imparts an orange tint, and is suitable to most blondes : it 
will not suit brunettes. 

Orange makes fair complexions blue, and whitens those with an 
orange tint : it is too brilliant to be elegant. 

White exalts all colors, consequently is unsuitable to complex- 
ions that do not appear better when made more prominent : it is 
suitable for a fresh or rosy complexion. 

Black lowers all colors and whitens the complexion. 

The observance of this law in the arrangement of flowers in a 
bouquet will lead to the separation of pink from both scarlet and 
crimson, orange from yellow, red from orange, pink from violet, 
blue from violet, etc. 



112 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

LESSOX I. 

DISTIXGUISHIXG THE PKniAEY COLOES. 

I am going to give you a lesson on colors to-day, 
but first I wish to know what enables you to see col- 
ors ? " Our eyes." True, you could not see them 
without eyes ; but if your eyes enable you to see col- 
ors, how does it haj^peu that you can not see them at 
night ? 

Now tell me, since you can not see them in the 
dark, how it is that you can see them by day ? " The 
Ught enables us to see them." Yes ; for without light 
you could not see any thing. 

Having placed before the children objects repre- 
senting the three primary colors, red^ ydloic^ and hlue^ 
as colored cards,* worsteds, or pieces of ribbon, etc., 
let the teacher, without naming it, point to red on the 
"chart of colors,"* and request the pupils to select the 
same color from the colored objects. When all the 
pupils are able to select readily this color, proceed 
with yellow in the same manner, then with blue. 

Next let the teacher select the card or colored ob- 
ject, and request the pupils to point to the same color 
on the "chart of colors." 

After the pupils have become somewhat familiar 
with these three colors, the teacher may arrange the 

* A "chart of colors," also a set of "colored cards," with two 
of each color represented on the "chart of colors," have been pre- 
pared for illustrating these lessons. 



PRIMARY COLORS. 118 

colored objects in a row, as yellow, red, blue, and re- 
quire the pupils to place other colored objects in the 
same order. Vary this until the pupils can readily 
imitate any given order of the three colors. 

Note. — The teacher should not say any thing about jon'mar_y or 
secondary colors during these lessons on " distinguishing and nam- 
ing colors." This division of them should be taken up by itself 
after the lessons on mixing colors. The terms are employed here 
as a guide to the teacher. 



LESSON 11. 

ITAMIISTG THE PEIMAET COLOES. 

The teacher will point to a color on the " chart of 
colors," and require each pupil to select from the cards 
or worsteds the same color ; then she will tell its name, 
and request each child to repeat it. 

Next she may ask them to mention some object 
which has the same color, and to point out the color 
in their dresses, or in objects seen in the room. 

Proceed in this manner with each of the three pri- 
mary colors, first requiring the children to select the 
color ; then tell them its name, and require each one 
to repeat it ; then to mention other objects with the 
same color. 

The teacher may next call upon the pupils to point 
to these three colors upon the "chart of colors," as 
she calls their names. Then require them to select 
the colors from the objects, as she calls their names. 



114 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Colored crayons may now be used, and these colors 
made upon the blackboard, and the children requested 
to name each as it is drawn upon the board. Similar 
practices and illustrations should be continued until 
all are familiar with each color. 

When it is practicable, it will add interest to these 
lessons if the teacher will provide three boxes to con- 
tain objects of the primary colors, and give the pupils 
colored cards, worsteds, wafers, beads, pieces of rib- 
bon, etc., and request them to assort these, placing 
those of different colors in separate boxes, as an 
amusement. The same might be done with the sec- 
ondary colors. This will gratify the child's desire 
to do. 



LESSON III. 

DISTrNGmSHTSTG THE SECOOTDAEY COLOES. 

Let the teacher point to green on the " chart of col- 
ors," and request the pupils to select the same color 
from the objects. Then ask them to mention other 
objects that have this color. Proceed in the same 
manner with orange and purple. 

Next let the teacher select an object possessing 
one of these colors, and require the pupils to point 
out the color on the card. Proceed in this manner 
with each of the secondary colors, showing as many 
objects for illustration as possible. 

The teacher may now arrange the colored objects 



SECONDARY COLORS. 115 

in rows, as in the first lesson ; and it might be well to 
add the three primary colors to the row when they 
can readily arrange secondary colors alone. Require 
them to practice on these until they can arrange them 
in the order of any simple pattern that may be given 
them, as red, blue, yellow, green, orange, purjDle ; 
green, yellow, blue, orange, red, purple ; blue, purple, 
red, orange, yellow, green, etc. 



LESSON ly. 

NAMING THE SECONDAEY COLOES. 

The teacher will now point to a color, as green, and 
request the pupils to select from the cards or worsteds 
the same color ; then she will tell its name, and re- 
quire each child to repeat it. 

Next she may tell them to mention objects which 
are green, and to point out the color in their dresses. 
Proceed in the same manner with orange and purple. 

Let the teacher call upon the children to point to 
orange, green, and purple on the card, as she repeats 
their names ; then require them to select such colors 
from the worsteds, etc., as she calls the nanie. 

Next, the colored crayons representing orange, 
green, and purple should be used, and the name of 
each color repeated by the pupils as the teacher draws 
it ujjon the blackboard. 

Call upon a pupil to select a crayon, and make a 
mark upon the board resembling the color of grass. 



116 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Request another to make a mark like the color of an 
orange ; another to make a mark resemblhig the color 
of the sky ; another the color of a canary-bird, etc. 

Let the teacher next call up a pupil to select two 
colors, red and blue ; another to select yellow and 
green ; another red and orange ; another blue and pur- 
ple, etc. Practice this and similar exercises until the 
pupils are familiar with and can readily select each of 
the six colors already presented. 



LESSON V. 

EED AND TELLOW. 

One of you may come here and select pieces of 
cards, ribbon, and wafers that are red, and give one 
to each pupil. Another pupil may come and select 
from the same objects those which are yellow, and 
give one to each pupil. I wish you to hold the red 
piece which you have in your left hand, and the yel- 
low piece in your right hand, and then compare them 
with the objects that I name. 

Now look at my lips, and tell me which color they 
are like. " They are red." 

Look at each other, and see if you have red lips. 
Which object are they like? " Like the red one, in 
my left hand." 

What is the color of your mouth and tongue ? 
" Red." Can you tell me when the tongue is not red ? 
" When we are Ul." What is it then ? " It is white." 



KED AND YELLOW. 117 

What should yon then say of the tongne ? " It is red 
when we are well." 

Did you ever see a bird of this color ? " Yes ; a 
robin." Do you mean to say that the robin is red all 
over ? " No ; it has red feathers on its breast." What, 
then, should you have said ? " The robin has a red 
breast." 

There is a very common and useful bird that has 
some red about it ; what do you think it is ? " The 
rooster has a red comb on its head." Is this comb 
feathers or flesh ? " It is flesh." 

Are there any more such pieces on the rooster? 
" Yes ; some pieces that hang down under its head." 
These pieces of flesh are called gills. What more can 
you say are red ? " The gills of the rooster are red." 

What have you seen red in the garden ? " Roses, 
pinks, and many other flowers." Are all roses and 
all pinks red ? " N^o ; sometimes they are white." 

Can you tell me other things that are red ? " The 
fire is red ; sometimes the sky is red." 

What do you think makes the sky red? "The 
sun setting." When is the sky red ? " The sky is 
red at sunset." Is the sky always red at sunset? 
" No." When is it so ? " In fine weather." Now 
repeat this together. " In fine weather the sky is red 
when the sun sets. 

Yellow. — We might mention a great many more 
things that are red, but we will now talk about some 
that are like the object in your right hand. What 
color is that ? " It is yellow." 



118 DEVELOBING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Tell me some objects that have this color. " Some 
gloves, ripe corn, sun-flowers." 

Can you tell me any part of the house that is paint- 
ed with this color ? " Yes ; the floors are yellow, and 
sometimes the walls." 

Did you ever see a bird of this color ? " Oh yes ; 
the canary, and the yellow-bird." 

"What fruits have you seen of this color ? " Ap- 
ples, plums, tomatoes." 

Ai-e all apples, and plums, and tomatoes yellow ? 
" ISTo ; a great many of them are red." Then what 
should you say of the color of these fruits ? " Some 
apples, and some plums, and some tomatoes are yel- 
low." 

When are leaves yellow ? "In the autumn." 

Now tell me all the things that you can see in this 
room which resemble the color in your right hand. 

Pomt to this color on the card ; point to the color 
on the card like that in your left hand. Select cray- 
ons, and make these colors on the board. 



LESSON yi. 

BLUE AiH) SHADE OF COLOE. 

What colors were we talking about in our last les- 
son ? " Red and yellow." To-day we will talk about 
Uue. Each of you may take an object that is blue, 
and hold it during the lesson. Now look at each 
other's dresses, and tell me if you see any color like 
that which you hold in your hand. 



BLUE AND SHADE OF COLOR. 119 

Now look at each other's eyes, and tell me what 
you see. " Some eyes are blue." Are they all dark 
hke this card ? " No ; some are light blue." 

Now look iu the sky, and tell me what you see. 
" The sky is light blue." Yes, the sky is a pale blue ; 
it is a very pleasant color to look on. God has made 
many things in nature of this color. 

Did you ever see a lake or the sea ? " Yes." If 
the sky, and the lakes, and sea were a bright red, they 
would be painful to the eye. Do you think the sky 
would look as beautiful as it does now were it a bright 
yellow ? 

God made this beautiful world pleasant for us to 
look at, and we should remember how good he is to 
paint every thing with the color best for that thing. 

To teach the dark shades and light shades of colors, 
the teacher might inquire what they would say at 
night when the light and fire are put out. "It is 
dark." What would we say in the morning when the 
sun has risen ? " It is light." 

Show them a very dark color, and ask, Does this 
look like the night or like the morning ? " It looks 
most like the dark." Then we will call it a dark color 
or shade. A shadow, you know, is a dark shade made 
by placing some object between the light and it. 
[Shows a dark blue, and points to a similar color on 
the card.] What can you say of this color ? " It is 
a dark blue." [Pointing to a light blue.] What can 
you say of this ? " It is a light blue." 

Now here are objects that are red, yellow, and blue ; 
some are dark and some are light. I wish you to se- 



120 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

lect the dark colors and place them in one box, and 
select the light colors and place them in another box. 



LESSOR Yll. 

HUES AKD TIXTS OF EED.* 

When the children have had sufficient exercise in 
distinguishing between light and dark colors to be- 
come familiar with this distinction, proceed to take up 
a single color, and teach its hues and tints. Give them 
samples of crimson, scarlet, vermilion, pink, rose, etc., 
and request them to select others to match these in 
hue. 

Let them next try to match these colors with ob- 
jects which they may see in the room, with their 
dresses, etc. 

Require them to select the same hues on the card 
of colors. At first one may be distinguished from 
the other by the terms dark red, light red, very light 
red, pale red, etc. Subsequently the names of the 
most prominent hues and tints may be taught, when 
the children are able to distinguish them readily. 
There should be a great deal of practice in selecting 
and naming these hues and tints. 

This exercise may be varied by allowing the chil- 
dren to try exercises with their companions in judging 
of colors. 

* See descriptions of shades, hues, and tints of color, on pages 
108, 109, and 110. 



HUES AND TINTS OF YELLOW. 121 

The teacher may arrange the hues of red in their 
order, from the darkest to the lightest, and require 
the children to select and arrange these hues in the 
same order. In all of these exercises, the teacher 
should first train the eye to discriminate the hues of 
color, then to assort and match them, next to teach 
their names. 



LESSON VIII. 

HUES AND TINTS OF YELLOW. 

Let the teacher select the hues of yellow, as saffron, 
lemon, sulphur, straw, primrose, etc., and request the 
pupils to match them ; then to point to these colors 
on the card. At first these hues and tints may be 
designated as dark, light, and pale yellow; subse- 
quently, when the children have become so familiar 
with them as to be able to readily select and match 
them, their names may be given. 

The teacher should be guided by the ability of the 
children to distinguish color in deciding how minute 
a distinction of hues should be made. With the youn- 
ger pupils it may be well only to make two or three 
distinctions, giving them the names yellow^ canary^ 
straW) and lemon. 

F 



122 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

LESSON IX. 

HUES OF OTHEE COLOES. 

Exercises on shades, hues, and tmts of color, simi- 
lar to those in the lessons on the primary colors, may 
be given, chiefly for the pm'pose of seeming much 
practice in discriminating them. Green, orange, pur- 
ple, russet, brown, and their hues, may be used for 
these lessons. 

During all of these exercises, the greatest variety of 
objects, representing the distinct colors embraced in 
the lesson, should be provided for illustrations — rib- 
bon, worsted, cotton, pieces of silk, beads, different 
fruits, flowers, leaves, etc. 

The worsteds used for illustrating these colors may 
be wound on pieces of white cards, and two of each 
color and hue should be prepared. 

The ability to distinguish hues of color is of the 
first importance, for when this is obtained the learn- 
ing of their names will be an easy matter. 

By requiring the children to give examples of color 
from recollection, they may be trained to apply cor- 
rect names to them, while an opportunity will be fur- 
nished for correcting many vague and inaccurate im- 
pressions. 



MIXING COLORS. 123 

LESSON X. 

ORAl^GE MIXING EED AND YELLOW. 

See Prontispiece, Fig. 1. 

Now I am going to show you something more cu- 
rious than any thing you have yet seen. I have here 
some paints. What is the color of this ? " Red." 
And of this? "Yellow." 

What am I doing ? " Mixing some red and yellow 
paint together." What do you see now? "You 
have made another color." 

What is that color like ? It is a dark or reddish 
yellow, like an orange." What is the name of this 
color ? " Orange." 

How did I make the orange color ? " By mixing 
red and yellow." 

The teacher may now make two broad marks on 
the blackboard — one with a red crayon, and one with 
a yellow crayon, in the form of an acute angle, and at 
the point where these two lines meet let him mark 
with both crayons, and rub the marks together so as 
to produce an orange color. 

Let the pupils take crayons and imitate the teacher, 
that this fact — mixing red and yellow produces orange 
— may become fixed in their minds. It is what the 
children do that they remember longest, not what they 
repeat. 



124 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOE. 

LESSO]^ XI. 

GEEEN — iriXIXG BLUE AXD YELLOW. 
See Frontispiece, Fig. 2. 

What colors have I here ? " Bhie and yellow." 
What am I doing ? " Mixmg them together." 

What do yon see now? "You have made a 
green." 

How did I make it ? " By mixing blue and yellow 
together." 

Which color does green look like, blue or yellow ? 
" It does not look like either." 

ISTow I wish each pupil to come and select objects 
of the colors which produce green, and hold them in 
one hand, and select another which is green, to hold 
in the other hand. 

]^ow let me see if you have them right. John has 
red in his hand with the yellow. Is that right? 
"No." What color would he have, should he mix 
these ? " Orange." Try it again, John. 

Mary, let me see yours. You have yellow and green 
in one hand, and blue in the other. Ella, you may 
show her how to hold them. Now all have the right 
colors, I believe. 

What two . colors have you in your left hand ? 
"Blue and yellow." What color have you in your 
right hand ? " Green." If you mix blue and yellow 
paint, what color will you have ? " Green." Very 
well. 



MIXING COLOES. 125 

I will draw two lines on the board to represent 
these colors. What color is this line which I have 
just made? "Yellow." What other line shall I 
draw by the side of it to show what two colors I 
must mix to produce green ? "A blue line." 

Now from this point where they meet, what line 
must I draw to show what these two colors produce 
when mixed ? "A green line." 

Now each pupil, two at a time, may put the objects 
which you hold in this box, and go to the board and 
draw these lines as I did. Let each one tell me Avhat 
is the color of the two lines which unite in a point, 
and what is the color of the other line. 



LESSON XII. 

PUEPLE MIXING BLUE AND EED. 

See Frontispiece, Fig. 3. 

What colors did we mix at our last lesson ? " Blue 
and yellow." What was the result? "They pro- 
duced green." 

What did we mix in the other lesson ? " Red and 
yellow." What was produced ? " Orange." 

What colors have I now ? " Blue and red." What 
am I doing ? " Mixing them together." 

What do you observe ? " You have produced a 
dark reddish color." What do you call this ? "A 
purple." 

Sometimes j)urple has more blue in it ; then we call 



126 DEYELOPIXG IDEAS OF COLOR. 

it violet. How did I make this purple ? " By mixing 
red and blue." 

ISJ"ow select objects that are red and blue, and those 
that are purple. Let me see what you have. When 
wrong selections have been made, show them to the 
class, and ask the pupils to tell what is wrong, and 
how to correct it. 

It would be desirable, after the class have told how 
to make the correction, to call upon one of the youn- 
gest pupils to select the colors that had been designa- 
ted. The young pupils should be brought forward 
when any thmg is to be done, especially when there 
is any shnple exercise of the senses. 



LESSOX XIII. 

INDIGO MIXING BLUE AND PUEPLE. 

See Frontispiece, Fig. 4. 

What two colors did we mix at the last lesson ? 
"Blue and red." What was the result? "Purple 
was produced." Which does purple most resemble, 
a blue or a red ? " It most resembles a dark red." 

What are these colors ? " Blue and purple." You 
observe that I have mixed them together. Can you 
tell me what color I have made ? "A dark blue." 
Yes ; we call this color indigo. It is a very dark blue, 
with a red tinge. 

Of what is purple composed ? " Of red and blue." 
You observe that I have now taken the jDurple and 
put more blue with it, and produced indigo. 



PEIMARY AND SECONDAKY COLOES. 127 

LESSON XIV. 

PEIMART AND SECONDARY COLOES. 

Now let US examine and see how many colors we 
had at first, and how many we jDroduced by mixing 
those. What were the first two colors that we mix- 
ed ? " Red and yellow." I will make red and yellow 
marks on the blackboard to help you to remember 
these. 

How many marks have I made ? " Two." How 
many colors do these marks rejDresent ? " Two." 
What are those colors ? " Red and yellow." 

What color did I produce by mixing red and yellow 
together ? " Orange." 

I will make a mark for this on the other side of the 
board. How many marks have I now made ? " Three." 
How many colors have we on the board ? " Three." 

What two colors did I mix next ? " Blue and yel- 
low." Have I any new color here that is not on the 
board ? " Yes ; the blue." Very good ; I will make 
a blue line for that. 

How many lines have we on the board now? 
"Four." How many colors? "Four." What col- 
or was produced when we mixed blue and yellow? 
" Green." 

I will make a green line for this under the orange, 
to indicate that it is one of the colors formed by mix- 
ing other colors. Now how many colors have we? 
"Five." What are their names? "Red, yellow, 



128 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

orange, bine, green." Which were formed by mixing 
other colors ? 

What two . colors did I mix at the next lesson ? 
" Blue and red." Have we both of those colors on 
the board ? " Yes." Well, what color did the mix- 
ing of these two produce ? " Purple." 

Where shall I place the line to represent this color ? 
" Under the orange and green." Very good. How 
many colors have we now on the board ? " Six." 
Repeat them. 

What two colors did I mix at the last lesson? 
" Blue and purple." Have we both of those colors 
represented on the board ? " Yes." What color was 
produced by mixing them ? " Indigo." 

Where shall I place the line to rej^resent this color ? 
"Under the purple." How many colors have we 
now? "Seven." Rej^eat them. 

How many colors did we use to produce all of these 
seven colors ? " Only three." Which are those col- 
ors ? "ii6c?, yelloic, and hlue.^'' These three colors 
are called primary colors^ because the other colors can 
be produced by mixing these together ; but we can 
not produce these three by mixing the others togeth- 
er. Which are the primary colors ? " Red, yellow, 
and blue." 

What colors are produced by mixing these three 
primary colors ? " Orange^ green^ and purjyle.^'' These 
colors thus produced are called secondary colors. How 
many secondary colors have we produced ? " Three." 
Repeat them. 

These, with indigo., are the seven colors that you 
see in a rainbow, or when you look through a prism. 



COLOR. 129 

Here is a prism ; I will place it so as to allow a ray 
of sunshine to pass through it, and show you all of 
these colors on this white paper. Now each one may 
look throusfh it and see the same colors. 



LESSON XY. 

CITKINE. 

You have now learned something about all the" col- 
ors which may be seen in the rainbow, or found with 
the prism in the sunbeam; but there are still other 
colors seen in the objects around us. These, however, 
are all produced by mixing those already named in 
different proportions. 

You have learned that by mixing red and yellow it 

will produce ,* and that by mixing yellow and 

blue it will produce .* Now, if we take the 

orange and green and mix them together, we shall 
obtain another color, which is called citri?ie, because it 
resembles the color of the citron fruit. This color is 
a greenish dark yellow. [The teacher points to it on 
the card of colors.] Now I wish you to select this 
color from the colored cards, also from the worsteds. 
Tell me what you have seen that resembles this color. 

Let each pupU describe citrine. 

* It is intended to let the children name the color, and thus fill 
these ellipses. In some instances of reviewing a previous lesson, 
for the sake of variety, it may be well to use this elliptical method 
of asking questions, but it should seldom be employed as a mode 
of conducting a lesson. 

F 2 



130 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

LESSON XVI. 

OLIVE. 

In our last lesson you told me that by mixing yel- 
low and blue together it will produce . Now, 

if we mix red and blue together, what will it jDroduce? 

We will take the green and the purple, and mix* 
them together. Now we have a dark yellowish green, 
which we call olive. You will see it upon the card 
of colors here. [Points to it.] Now select the olive 
cards. "What is this dark yellowish green called? 
" Olive." Show me a piece of olive-colored worsted. 

Let each pupil select this color from the cards and 
from the worsteds ; also point it out on the card of 
colors. 

Next request each to describe oUve. 



LESSON XVII. 

EUSSET. 



If we mix together red and yellow it will produce 
If we mix together red and blue it will pro- 



duce . Now, if we take orange and purple 

and mix them together, we shall have a dark reddish 
color, which is called russet. This color is seen on 
russet apples. 

* The teacher should provide herself with good colored crayons, 
or with a box of water-colors, to illustrate these lessons. 



COLOR. 131 

I will show you the color here. [Points to russet.] 
Now I wish you to select this color from the cards 
and from the worsteds. 

Let each pupil in turn point out the color on the 
card, and each one select it from the worsteds and the 
cards. 

Request them to bring to school russet apples, also 
leaves of this color. 



LESSON XYIIL 

ABOUT WHITE AND BLACK. 

We are now to have one more lesson about colors. 
Who can tell me whether all things have color or not ? 
" They do"—" they do not." 

You do not seem to agree about this. Let us see 
if we can not determine whether every thing has col- 
or. Can you see color ? " Yes." Then you can see 
an object that has color ? " Yes." 

Well, can you see the air ? " No." How do you 
know there is any air ? " We can feel it." 

You say you can see an object that has color ; also, 
that you can not see the air : then has the air color ? 
"No." 

Now, are all things colored ? " No." 

If you can see through any substance, and it does 
not change the color of the things which you see 
through it, that substance has no color. Let us see 
if this is so. Here is a piece of window-glass. Look 



132 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

through it at this wafer, and tell me the color of the 
wafer when you see it through the glass. " It is red." 
Now look at this ribbon ; what is its color? " Blue." 

You observe that all of these objects have the same 
color when seen through the glass that they have 
when seen without it. Then what may be said of 
good window-glass ? " It has no color." 

I have put a blue marble in this cup of water. Does 
the marble appear blue now ? " Yes." What, then, 
may you say of water? "Water has no color." 

But I am now going to tell you something about 
lohite^ which will seem strange to you. White is all 
colors. Let us see if you can understand this. You 
know that when we take this prism, and let a small 
beam of sunlight through it, you can see the seven 
colors about which we have been talking. Who will 
tell me the color of the sunlight ? " It is white." 
Yes ; bright daylight is white. 

Well, the prism separated the colors of the sunlight, 
so that we can see each one distinctly. The sunlight 
is white, so white must contain all colors. 

A very wise man, who lived many years ago, thought 
if white contains all colors, he could mix all the seven 
colors of the rainbow together and produce white. 
So he tried it. He took powders of seven different 
colors, and ground them together very finely ; and 
when they became thoroughly mixed, the seven colors 
all disappeared, and the mixed powder was a gray 
white. It would have been entirely white could he 
have obtained pure colors, and mixed them as thor- 
oughly as God does in the sunbeam. 



COLOR. 133 

I have one more strange thing to tell you — hlack is 
no color. What did I tell you that the little girl said 
to her blind brother about black ? " That it was like 
the darkest night." 

Can you see in the dark? Can you see any color 
where there is no light? Black is the absence of 
light. You may think about this, and when you be- 
come older you can understand it. 

Reviewing. — One of the most important points in 
teaching color, as well as other subjects, is to pursue 
a graduated and systematic course. The first steps 
should be simple — something within the children's ex- 
perience ; and no succeeding steps should be taken till 
they are firm in the preceding one. For the want of 
this slow course, children are often bewildered and 
obhged to retrace their way, which is annoying to 
them, and in the end the ideas gained are seldom clear 
and vivid ; besides, bad habits of mind are often form- 
ed thus. 

As a mode of reviewing these lessons, the teacher 
may show objects and require the children to tell all 
their colors ; afterward name objects, and require them 
to mention their colors, and to make marks on the 
board with crayons to represent these colors ; also, to 
select them from the cards and worsteds. If they do 
not give the correct colors of absent objects, request 
them to examine and tell at the next lesson. 

At other times an object may be named to-day for 
the lesson to-morrow, requesting them to examine it 
so as to be able to tell all its colors, and how those 
colors may be prorlnood. 



134 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF COLOR. 

Harmony of Colors. — Something may also be done 
to give the child a perception of harmony in color. 
Here the eye should first be trained to observe this 
harmony by frequently arranging patterns or groups of 
colors in harmonious combinations, as red and green, 
yellow and purple, blue and orange, green and russet, 
orange and olive, etc. 

When the eye has become accustomed to these, it 
•will be offended by combinations which are not har- 
monious, as yellow and orange, blue and green, red 
and orange, blue and purple, orange and russet, and 
the hke. 

After the children have learned to perceive a sense 
of harmony in colors by frequent practice in observ- 
ing and arranging them, as a sense of concord in mu- 
sic grows up after hearing it frequently exemjDlified, 
they may be taught the names of colors which har- 
monize and those which do not harmonize. 

One of the best and most entertaining means of 
teaching this harmony to girls is for them to arrange 
flowers in bouquets, and let the teacher point out those 
which do not harmonize. 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 



The child comes by its first notions of number 
tlirougli the medium of objects ; on the observation 
of objects, then, should be based its training in num- 
ber. It does not use numbers for their own sake, but 
for the sake of the things to be numbered. It counts 
by sight, and readily learns what five balls and five 
apples are, but can not reason about the number five. 
If it be understood by the teacher that it is with num- 
ber as a property of bodies that the child is to deal, 
and not with the science of number, it will be very 
clear that it must not be occupied with rules or tech- 
nical operations. 

Veritable ideas of number belong to the early dis- 
cipHne of the eye, and are dependent on the actual 
presentation of objects. This method of teaching 
number, when well conducted, is a valuable way of 
preparing for future study. From the habit of close* 
associaticTi between number and things which it im- 
parts, this preliminary training will give the pupil a 
great advantage in his subsequent lessons. 

It is said that the inhabitants of one group of isl- 
ands in the Pacific have no definite ideas of any num- 
ber over five. But we need not leave the shores of 



136 DEYELOPIXG IDEAS OF NUMBEE, 

our own enlightened land to find thousands of in- 
stances where, from the practice of requiring pupils 
to depend upon the mere verbal memory of the words 
which represent numbers, those pupils have no dis- 
tinct knowledge, nor definite conceptions even, of any 
number whatever. 

The fundamental error in teaching arithmetic in 
school is the abstract manner in which it is presented, 
and owing to this, the pupil never thinks of finding 
illustrations of what he is taught in the things that he 
sees about him daily. 

How shall the teacher make his lessons in number 
and arithmetic real, living transactions, in j^lace of ab- 
stractions, is the important inquiry for him to make. 
How can he so train his pupils, when the question 
considers men and horses, or bushels and dollars, that 
they shall see the real men and horses, and bushels 
and dollars, through their representative figures and 
numbers ? How shall the lessons for mental disci- 
pline at school be associated with the real transactions 
of life outside of the school-room? These are ques- 
tions of the first moment, if he would give practical 
instruction along with the disci^^line of the faculties. 

To answer these questions satisfactorily, the teacher 
must go back of the usual course of instruction in 
arithmetic. He must prejDare the way for the intro- 
duction of the science of numbers. To suggest the 
steps for that preliminary work will be the object of 
these lessons on number. 

Abstract numbers, and even what is termed mental 
arithmetic^ should not be taught before the child is 



NUMBER. 137 

eight or nine years of age ; but training in counting 
and the fundamental ideas of number, through the 
medium of objects, may be commenced as early as 
the age of four or five. 

It is a lamentable fact that the science of number 
is taught backward in a majority of primary schools. 
The pupils are required to begin with reasoning and 
abstractions, instead of observation on real things, and 
many never progress so far as to see any realities 
through the fog of abstractions, and leave school with- 
out a single clear idea of what the science of num- 
bers is. 

The teacher of the common school may say, I have 
no time for this objective teaching. Then better dis- 
pense with other subjects termed " higher studies," 
for it is of vastly more importance that the first steps 
be rightly taken than that you attempt to teach the 
abstract studies in which your pupils spend so much 
time in trying to rear structures on sandy founda- 
tions. 

Although the so-called " Primary Arithmetics" are 
abundant, there are but few from which the teacher 
can derive aid in these early primary lessons. She 
must depend mainly on the resources of her own mind, 
aided by experience, and such suggestions as she can 
gather relative to the process for developing first ideas 
of number. The most comprehensive suggestions to 
be given are, teach by means of objects; illustrate 
every lesson ; make frequent use of the blackboard ; 
take a new step forward as soon as the last one has 
become familiar. 



138 DEYELOPIXG IDEAS OF Is'UMBER. 



LESSON^ I. 

FIRST IDEAS OF XTJMBEE. 

The first ideas of number are best communicated 
by reference to familiar objects ; and tliese should be 
of several kinds, to prevent the association of the mim- 
ber with one class of objects only. The nse of the 
common numeral frame or ball-frame, alone, might 
lead the children to connect the idea of number with 
one branch of objects, and prevent their acquiring the 
abstract idea of numbers. 

Let the younger children learn to count balls, books, 
pencils, cents, pebbles, beans, apples, or any objects 
which may be at hand ; the greater the variety, and 
the more familiar the objects, the better. They may 
also count their fingers. Each jDupil in the class may 
hold up one finger, then each one finger on each hand, 
then each two fingers on each hand, then three fingers 
on each hand, and so on to five. 

Having placed several objects on the table, as books, 
pencils, pebbles, beans, buttons, cents, etc., require 
each pupil in turn to select three objects of such kind 
as he may choose. When all have done this correct- 
ly, let each put back two objects and hold one; next 
place the remaining object on the table with those of 
its kind. 

Now the teacher may hold up two objects of a 
kind, and ask how many she holds ; then three ob- 
jects. They may be required to hold up two fingers 



FIRST IDEAS OF NUMBER. 139 

each, three fingers; then to clap hands once, then 
twice, then three times. 

'Next three children may be put in a row, and the 
class required to tell how many there are. 

Then two lines | | may be made on the blackboard, 
then three dots - - -, then one cross X? then tw^o 
dots - -, then three lines | | |, and the pupils required 
to tell how many of each, as they are made. 

Representing Numbers. — Let the children place 
beans or other objects in groups of two, three, four, 
etc., and then represent the number in each group by 
lines or dots on the blackboard. 

They should also be required to repeat the num- 
bers, thus : " Two lines, three dots, one cross, two 
dots, three lines ;" then to repeat the name and num- 
ber of the objects selected to represent these lines, 
dots, etc., thus : " Two cents, three beans, one book, 
two pencils, three buttons." This exercise should be 
varied and continued until the children are perfectly 
familiar with all numbers up to ten. 

Sometimes require. all the pnj)ils to make lines, dots, 
or crosses on the board, indicating the numbers called 
for. 

Ask the children how many eyes they have, how 
many ears, how many feet, how many toes on one 
foot, how many hands, how many fingers and thumbs, 
how many wheels a cart has, how many a wagon has, 
how many a rail-road car, if they have seen one, etc. ; 
and then request them to represent these numbers 
with lines and dots. 



14:0 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NU^BEE. 

Meaning of Numbers.— In teaching the meaning 
of the several numbers, do not proceed by arranging 
objects to be counted in order, as one, two, three, 
four, etc., but begin by placing one thing, and then 
one more, for two ; then one object, and one more, 
and one more, for three. Proceed in this manner : 
Put down one bean, and say, " There is one ;" then 
put down another, and say, " There is one more — one 
and one more make two." Then take both up, and 
let the several pupils do the same, repeating the num- 
bers as they do it. 

Let the pupils put down one, saying " One ;" and 
put down another, saying " One more — one and one 
make two." Then put down the third, saying, " One 
and one are two, and one more makes three." 

All may now be taken uj), and the process repeated 
by the pupils. Be sure to put down only one at a 
time in proceeding to the next higher number, that 
the pupil may comprehend that all numbers are made 
up of ones. 

During these first lessons, as has already been sug- 
gested, a variety of objects should be used to prevent 
the Umited association of number to a particular ob- 
ject. Marks, dots, etc., should be made on the black- 
board in the same manner. 

Counting Objects.— When the children have learn- 
ed to comprehend the numbers from one to five, a les- 
son may be given somewhat in the following manner : 

Here are five j)encils, five sticks, five marbles, five 
books, five api3les, on the table. N'ow I want you to 



FIGURES. 141 

count them with me. One apple and one apple are 
two apples, and one more apple are three apples, and 
one more apple are four apples, and one more apjDle 
are five apples. Proceed in the same manner through 
each class of objects; then count one, two, three, four, 
five books, etc. 

Next let one of the pupils take one book and two 
marbles ; another, two jDencils and three books ; an- 
other, three sticks and one apple ; another, three pen- 
cils and three marbles ; another, four a23ples and two 
sticks, etc. Thus should the teacher resort to a great 
variety of exercises with different objects, presenting 
them in such a variety of ways that the pupils may 
have a clear conception of all the numbers from one 
to ten inclusive. 

To accomplish all that has been suggested under 
the head of '■'■First Ideas of Number'''' will require 
several exercises with young children ; but these^rs?^ 
ideas should be thoroughly understood before another 
step is undertaken. 



LESSON II. 

riGUEES. 

When the children have become familiar with the 
first ideas of numbers, figures may be introduced as 
representatives of those numbers. In doing this, great 
pains should be taken to lead the pupils to understand 
that the figures 1, 3, 5, 8 represent one, three, five, or 



142 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBEE. 

eight objects, or things, or animals, or dollars, as the 
case may be. 

The teacher may make one hne on the blackboard, 
then the figure 1 to represent it; then two dots and 
the figure 2, then three lines and the figure 3, then 
four dots and the figure 4, and so continue to repre- 
sent all the numbers up to ten. 

Then the children may select diflerent numbers of 
objects, and the teacher make figures to show how 
many each has. 

Then the teacher may make figures, and require the 
children to select the number of objects represented 
by each figure. Thus the notion of real objects will 
soon become so associated with the figures which rep- 
resent the numbers as to cause them to aj^pear as re- 
aUties to the child. 

If a child has learned to count as far as ten^ and has 
a conception of these numbers from counting objects, 
it may be taught all the figures^ from one to ten in- 
clusive, in thirty minutes. 

On returning home one evening, my little girl came 
to me with a primary arithmetic (she could read only 
a few common words), and asked me to tell her what 
those marks were, at the same time pointing to a page 
where the nine digits were repeated in their order in 
the following form : 

123456789 10 
123456789 10 
123456789 10 
Requesting her to hold up one finger, I pointed to 



FIGURES. 143 

the 1, and told her that it is the figure one. Then I 
requested her to hold up two fingers, while I pointed 
to thQ figure 2. In this manner I proceeded as far as 
the figure 4, then commenced at the 1 again, pointing 
at and speaking the name of each figure, thus : " Fig- 
ure 1, figure 2, figure 3, figure 4. Now observe," 
said I, " this is the way you count, and the names of 
these figures are what you say when you count. Now 
see again — one, two, three, four." As I came to the 4 
this time, she seemed to comprehend the whole proc- 
ess, and continued herself to point at and name 5, 6, 
V, 8, 9, 10, asking once or twice if she was right. In 
less than ten minutes she could name either of the 
nine digits at sight, in any order. The entire time 
spent at this exercise did not exceed fifteen minutes, 
and no previous lesson had been given with figures. 

A few days afterward I placed before her pieces of 
money as counters, and, as I pointed to the figure 1, 
requested her to put as many pieces on the book which 
I held as the figure 1 represented. In this way I pro- 
ceeded through to the 9, in order ; then I pointed to 
figures at random, each time requesting her to place 
as many pieces of money on the book as the figure 
represented. In every instance she selected the num- 
ber expressed by the figure. 

The same plan might not always be successful, yet 
it shows what may be easily accomplished in teach- 
ing a child if we observe the method in which nature 
is developing its mind, and shape our instruction in 
accordance with that method. 



1-M 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 



LESSON m. 

FOEMATION AND SUCCESSION OF NXniBEES. 

To lead the children to an accurate idea of the for- 
mation and increase of numbers, and of their succes- 
sion, the teacher should use a numeral frame, with the 
balls placed in the following manner, or arrange dots 
on the blackboard thus, and require the children to 
name the number of balls or dots in succession as she 
points to them : 



•K- 


vr 














vf 


vf 


vr 












^ 


^ 


•» 


vr 










«• 


vr 


w 


vr 


•^ 








* 


ir 


w 


"if 


vr 


w 






* 


w 


w 


* 


* 


^ 


^ 




w 


■Jf 


■if 


w 


* 


w 


« 


* 


•Jv 


~ 


* 


vr 


V? 


■Jr 


«• 


■K- vs- 



^ ^'f ■?:• -J^- -if ■-■ -H- «• ^ «• 

If the teacher has no numeral frame, she can place 
characters — say the figure 1 — on the blackboard in 
the same form. It would be well also to arrange 
beans and other objects in this form, for a change in 
the exercise. Let the teacher point to the row repre- 
senting three, and ask the pupils to tell what number 
comes before and what after it ; then to five, six, eight, 
seven, etc., in the same manner. 

Again, numbers might be announced and the chil- 
dren required to tell from memory what number comes 



COMPARING NUMBERS. 145 

before and what after them. Then they may be re- 
qiih'ed to state, from looking at the balls, or the char- 
acters on the board, or the beans upon the table, what 
number is between any two numbers ; then to tell the 
same from memory. For instance, 5 may be mention- 
ed, and the children requested to tell what number 
precedes and what follows it. The pupil will say, 
" Four comes before it, and six after it." 

Then 6 and 8 may be mentioned, and the pupil re- 
quired to tell what number comes between them. The 
pupil will reply, " Seven comes between six and eight." 



LESSON IV. 

COJMPAEING NUMBEES. 

In teaching children to compare numbers, it is not 
intended to show the actual difference between them, 
but to lead them readily to determine which is the 
larger and which the smaller number. 

The teacher may proceed in this manner : Tell me 
a number which is more than three ; now one that is 
more than six ; another that is more than seven ; one 
that is more than five, etc. 

Now you may tell me a number that is less than 
two ; one that is less than four ; one less than eight ; 
one less than six, etc. 

Tell me all the numbers you know that are less than 
four ; all that you know that are less than six ; all less 
than three ; all less than eight, etc. 

Now tell me the numbers that you know which are 

a 



146 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 

more than seven ; those which are more than five ; 
those more than six ; those more than fom-, etc. 

Which is the largest number, three, six, or five ? 
Which the largest, eight, four, or seven ? six, nine, or 
five ? two, five, or seven ? 

Which is the smallest number, four, one, or three ? 
two, six, or five ? eight, seven, or nine ? six, four, or 
three ? 

Which is the smallest number that you know ? 
which the largest ? 

Here are four cents in this pile, and six cents in 
this ; which pile contains the greater number of cents ? 
I have placed eight beans in one place, and eight cents 
in another ; which contains the larger number ? 

The teacher will readily perceive how these exer- 
cises can be extended in an almost unlimited variety, 
and she will vary them according to the attainments 
and progress of her pupils. 



LESSON V. 

ORDER OF NU:MBERS. 

Children should be taught that the names are given 
to numbers according to the relative position or order 
in which the objects they represent are placed, as 
first, second, third, etc. The importance of a specific 
lesson o-n the order of numbers arises from the cir- 
cumstance that frequently the idea of one, two, three, 
etc., is confounded with the notion which properly be- 



ORDER OF NUMBERS. 147 

longs to first, second, third, etc. Every separate and 
distinct idea should be made a distinct object of at- 
tention, if accuracy and vigor of mind are to be culti- 
vated. 

One of the most successful modes of developing the 
ideas of first, second, third, fourth, etc., is to procure 
a small ladder with ten rounds in it. Being a new 
object, this will arrest the attention and interest the 
children. 

Let them first count the steps ; then lead them to 
see that in speaking of these ste^^s, or in climbing the 
ladder, we do not say one step, two steps, etc., but 
first step, second step, third step, etc. 

If the terms are new to the children, one of the 
class may be requested to stand before the others, 
and place his hands on the successive rounds as if 
climbing to the top. As each round is touched, the 
teacher will give the appropriate number, thus : First 
round, second round, third round, etc. 

After several ^^upils have gone through with this 
exercise, the different members of the class may be 
called upon to " touch the third round, the fourth 
round, the eighth round," etc. 

Afterward objects should be counted thus, as first 
finger, second finger, third finger ; first book, second 
book, etc., until a sufiacient variety of exercises have 
been given to enable the children to clearly under- 
stand the order and names of numbers. They may be 
asked. Which is the first meal in the day ? which the 
second ? the thu'd ? Which is the first day of the 
week ? which the second ? 



148 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 

LESSON VI. 

ADDITION. 

We do not purpose to give here all the lessons for 
the teacher to use before her pupils, but enough to 
suggest how this subject may be taught objectively; 
how the operations in addition may be made to con- 
vey to the minds of children the idea of putting to- 
gether real things. For this purpose, we shall indicate 
several steps in this process by exercises, each of which 
is intended for a distinct lesson. 

Probably the best apparatus that can be procured 
for teaching addition is a quart of beans, a numeral 
frame, a blackboard, aided by s«ch other objects as 
can be readily procured in any school. 

First Exercise. — Let the pupils add one bean to 
one bean until they clearly comprehend that one and 
one are two ; then place one ball alone on the frame, 
and add one more ball to it, to impress more fully the 
fact that one and one are two. Add in this manner, 
by using the beans or the numeral frame, one to all 
the successive numbers from one to nine, thus : 

1 bean and 1 bean are 2 beans ; 2 beans and 1 bean 
are 3 beans ; 3 beans and 1 bean are 4 beans ; 4 beans 
and 1 bean are 5 beans; 5 beans and 1 bean are 6 
beans ; 6 beans and 1 bean are 7 beans ; 7 beans and 
1 bean are 8 beans ; 8 beans and 1 bean are 9 beans ; 
9 beans and 1 bean are 10 beans. 



ADDITION. 149 

Change the form of the addition, and add all the 
successive numbers from one to nine, thus : 

1 ball and 1 ball are 2 balls ; 1 ball and 2 balls are 
3 balls ; 1 ball and 3 balls are 4 balls ; 1 ball and 4 
balls are 5 balls, and so on. 

If it is found necessary to go over with this lesson 
again, the teacher might use the blackboard, making 
lines or dots, proceeding as with the beans or balls. 

Second Exercise. — For the second exercise add all 
the numbers to two, as 2 balls and 1 ball are 3 balls ; 

2 balls and 2 balls are 4 balls ; 2 balls and 3 balls are 
5 balls ; 2 balls and 4 balls are 6 balls, and so on. 

Change by adding two to each of the numbers from 
one to five, thus : 1 bean and 2 beans are 3 beans ; 2 
beans and 2 beans are 4 beans ; 3 beans and 2 beans 
are 5 beans ; 4 beans and 2 beans are 6 beans, etc. 

Third Exercise. — For the third exercise add three 
to all the numbers from one to nine, thus : 1 bean and 

3 beans are 4 beans ; 2 beans and 3 beans are 5 beans ; 
3 beans and 3 beans are 6 beans j 4 beans and 3 beans 
are 7 beans, and so on. 

Then add aU the numbers to three, thus : 3 dots 
and 1 dot are 4 dots ; 3 dots and 2 dots are 5 dots ; 3 
dots and 3 dots are 6 dots, etc. 

Proceed in this manner through the entire number 
of digits, making a lesson for each figure, as above. 

Afterward the same number may be repeated in 
lessons, omitting the names of the objects, as 1 and 1 
are 2 ; 2 and 1 are three ; 3 and 1 are 4, etc. 



150 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBEE. 

These exercises may be interspersed with a few ex- 
amples to be answered, as, James had two apples, and 
John gave him one more j how many apples had he 
then ? 

OHiei" Exercises. — Other lessons may be given in 
addition by requiring the children to find how many 
must be added to a given number to make another 
given number, as. How many beans must be added to 

3 beans to make 4 beans ? how many to 5 beans to 
make 6 beans ? to 7 beans to make 8 beans ? 

How many balls must be added to 2 balls to make 

4 balls ? to 3 balls to make 5 balls ? to 4 balls to make 
6 balls ? etc. 

As a means of amusement, the children may be re- 
quested to find in how many ways they can arrange 
five beans, so that when added they will produce five. 

At another time, to find in how many ways they 
can arrange six beans, so that when added they will 
j)roduce six, as one and five, two and four, three and 
three, etc. 

Proceed in the same manner with seven, eight, nine, 
and ten. By this process the children will learn from 
observation and experience that two and two make 
four ; that three and two make five, and two and three 
make five ; that four and three make seven, and three 
and four make seven, etc. 

By thus combining numbers in various ways, they 
will obtain a clear idea of their combinations by ad- 
dition while engaged in entertaining exercises. Of 
course, the precise manner in which these exercises 



SUBTRACTION. 151 

shall be conducted must be left to the tact and judg- 
ment of the teacher, as it is highly important to suc- 
cess that they be adapted to the circumstances of the 
school. 

Note. — It may be thought by some teachers that these exer- 
cises in addition are so minute as to require too much time — that 
the children should go over more in one lesson. This might be 
better for some children, but the true policy in teaching is, " Make 
haste slowly." There is no danger of erring here so long as the 
interest of the children can be kept up, while, by attempting to 
go forward too rapidly, fatal errors may be committed. 

It is very much to be regretted that so few teachers show by 
their labors that they understand the infant mind, or pursue any 
systematic course of mental training. Primary teachers, above 
all others, should possess great skill and tact in discovering the 
condition and modes of development of the mind of each individ- 
ual pupil ; and they should so thoroughly understand the laws of 
mind as to be able readily to adapt a course of systematic training 
to the condition of every pupil. 



LESSON VII. 

SUBTRACTION^. 

Much of what has been said about methods in ad- 
dition will apply to subtraction by simply reversing 
the processes, and subtracting instead of adding. 
However, we will indicate these processes more defi- 
nitely by suggesting a few exercises to be practiced. 

First Exercise.— Let the pupils take 1 bean from 
2 beans, 1 bean from 3 beans, 1 bean from 4 beans, 
and so on through all the numbers to ten, thus : 



152 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 

1 bean from 2 beans will leave 1 bean ; 1 bean from 
3 beans will leave 2 beans, and so on. 

Then use the numeral frame, and let them take 1 
ball from 2 balls, 1 ball from 3 balls, etc. 

The blackboard may be used, and marks, or dots, 
or crosses, and the process conducted by rubbing out 

1 dot from 3 dots, etc. 

Second Exercise. — Request the children to take 2 
beans from 3 beans, and so on, as before. Then use 
the blackboard, and rub out two dots or marks from 
the marks representing each of the digits. 

Other exercises may be added, and these processes 
continued until each number from one to nine has 
been subtracted from all the numbers greater than it- 
self up to ten. 

Addition and Subtraction combined.— When the 

pupils have become familiar with subtraction, let them 
combine it with addition in this manner : 

2 beans taken from 3 beans leave 1 bean ; 2 beans 
and 1 bean are 3 beans. 2 beans from 4 beans leave 

2 beans ; 2 beans and 2 beans are 4 beans. 2 beans 
from 5 beans leave 3 beans ; 2 beans and 3 beans are 
5 beans, and so on. 

These exercises may be continued until the children 
have subtracted and added, in this manner, all the 
numbers up to ten, as 3 from 4, 3 from 5, etc. ; 4 from 
6, 5 from 6, etc., using various objects; also the black- 
board, with dots and lines. 

If desirable, the exercise can be made more difficult 



SUBTRACTION. 153 

by taking one number from another, and adding still 
another number, thus : 3 from 5 leaves 2 ; 2 and 4 are 
6. 3 from 6 leaves 3 ; 3 and 5 are 8, etc. 

Again, take 2 from 6, then 2 more, and how many 
will remain ? 

Another change : add two numbers, then subtract 
one, thus : 4 and 2 are 6 ; 3 from 6 leaves 3. 

Thus the teacher can devise a sufficient variety of 
exercises to keep the interest up until each subject is 
understood, and the combination of numbers familiar. 

Arithmetical Game. — As an arithmetical amuse- 
ment for little children who have learned to count, 
add, and subtract, the game commonly called " Hull 
Gull" may be made interesting and instructive. 

Distribute beans among all the children in the class ; 
let each in turn take a part in the right hand, and ask 
the child next on the left, " How many ?" If the child 
guesses exactly, it takes them all ; if it guesses more 
or less than the exact number, it must give as many 
beans as the number is more or less than the number 
in the hand to the one who asked the question. 

When this game has become familiar, let it be va- 
ried by one of the pupils holding a number of beans 
in his hand, and asking each of the others to guess 
how many he holds. When all have guessed, the set- 
tlement is made as before. 

This game may be played without a word being 
spoken aloud, the child holding up its closed hand, 
and the others holding in their open hands as many 
as they guess are in the closed one. 
< X 2 



154 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 



LESSON VIII. 

MULTIPLICATIOX. 

Multiplying is an artificial process derived from ad- 
dition. Children usually tend in their reckoning to 
fall back on the natural process of addition. To obvi- 
ate this, the artificial j^rocess should be taught through 
the natural one. 

Do not stop to inquire whether the child knows the 
multiplication table before you introduce multiplica- 
tion to him, for in these primary lessons they will best 
learn it while applying it, if properly trained. 

Let the pupils proceed something after this manner : 

1 bean and 1 bean are 2 beans, then 2 times 1 are 

2 ; 1 bean and 1 bean and 1 bean are three beans, then 

3 times 1 are three, and so on. 

When the pupils have had sufficient practice with 
objects, as beans, buttons, panes of glass in the win- 
dows, to become familiar with multiplying, the num- 
bers only may be used, thus : 

1 and 1 are 2, then 2 times 1 are 2. 

1 and 1 and 1 are 3, then 3 times 1 are 3. 

1 and 1 and 1 and 1 are 4, and so on. 

2 and 2 are 4, then 2 times 2 are 4. 

2 and 2 and 2 are 6, then 3 times 2 are 6. 

2 and 2 and 2 and 2 are 8, then 4 times 2 are 8. 

3 and 3 are 6, then 2 times 3 are 6. 

3 and 3 and 3 are 9, then 3 times 3 are 9. 
3 and 3 and 3 and 3 are 12, then 4 times 3 are 12. 



DIVISION. 155 

Proceed in this manner until the children have 
learned to miiltiiDly all the numbers from one to ten. 
Experience will suggest other steps in training chil- 
dren in multiplication, but care should be taken not 
to dispense with objects too soon. Indeed, the exer- 
cises in number for children under eight years of age 
should be clearly illustrated by the use of objects. 



LESSON IX. 

DIVISIOIf. 

Let the teacher give the pupils each four beans or 
buttons, to divide into two equal parts or numbers, 
and to tell how many in each number ; then six beans 
to be thus divided, then eight beans, and so on. 

Next require them to divide six beans or buttons 
into three equal parts, and to tell how many there are 
in each part ; then nine into three equal parts, then 
twelve. 

Next request them to divide four buttons into four 
equal parts ; then eight, then twelve. 

Give them six beans to be placed in two equal rows, 
and require them to tell how many are in each row. 

Request them to place nine buttons in three equal 
rows. 

Exercises combining multiplication and division 
may be conducted in the following manner : 

2 times 2 are 4, then 4 contains 2 twos ; 2 times 3 
are 6, then 6 contains 2 threes ; 2 times 4 are 8, then 
8 contains 2 fours, and so on. 



156 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 

3 times 2 are 6, then 6 contains 3 twos ; 3 times 3 
are 9, then 9 contains 3 threes; 3 times 4 are 12, then 
12 contains 3 fom-s, and so on. 

4 times 2 are 8, then 8 contains 4 twos ; 4 times 3 
are 12, then 12 contains 4 threes. 

By repeating similar exercises, using objects to il- 
lustrate the examples, children may be led to com- 
prehend that multiplication and division bear the same 
relation to each other that addition and subtraction do. 



LESSON X. 

FEACTIOXS. 

It is important that children should early obtain 
clear perceptions of the comparative size oi halves and 
quarters^ of thirds and sixths^ of halves and thirds^ 
and of thirds and fourths. The first two may be eas- 
ily illustrated with apples, but lines will better serve 
in showing the comparative sizes of the others. 

Let the teacher draw parallel lines on the black- 
board, dividing one into tiuo equal parts, the other into 
three equal parts, thus : 



When the children understand a half and a third 
so well that they can divide lines thus, also can readi- 
ly tell which is the larger, a half of an apple or a third 
of one, the teacher may proceed to ilhistrate thirds 



FRACTIONS. 157 

2kndL fourths in a similar manner, with parallel lines, 
thus : 



It might aid in fixing the idea of the comparative 
sizes of halves and thirds, and of thirds and fourths, to 
take sticks or strings, or slips of paper of equal lengths, 
and cut one into two equal parts, one into three equal 
parts, and one into four equal parts. 

It would be well to illustrate each examj)le by di- 
viding lines, or strings, of different lengths, to prevent 
the possibility of leaving an impression that either a 
half or a third is a fixed length, like an inch. 

The object in comparing these fractions is not to 
teach their exact difference, but to early fix the fact 
in the children's minds that a half is greater than a 
third, that a third is more than a fourth, and that two 
thirds is less than three fourths. Let them see that 
the more parts any thing is divided into, the smaller 
each of those parts must be. 

It is of much importance that these early impres- 
sions be correct, for they greatly influence the mind 
in comprehending subsequent relations of numbers. 

Note. — The " Numeral Frame" furnishes a convenient and 
excellent means of illustrating fractions, as well as other lessons 
in number. For suggestions relative to plans of the room, appa- 
ratus, etc., for teaching number, see "What is desirable fbr suc- 
cessful object teaching" on p. 359. 



158 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF NUMBER. 

LESSON XI. 

TEACHING THE TABLES BY OBJECTS. 

In teaching the decimal currency, the teacher should 
provide ten cents, ten dimes, ten gold dollars, and one 
eagle. Let her then explain that ten cents are only 
equal in value to one dime, that ten dimes are only 
equal to one dollar, and so on. 

In order to show why the dimes are smaller than 
the cents, and the dollars smaller than the dimes, the 
teacher may explain that silver, of which dimes are 
made, is worth more than copper or nickel, and that 
gold is worth still more than silver. 

One thorough lesson given with the currency itself 
is worth more to the child than the repetition of the 
table alone for a whole year. 

If the teacher could arrange some simple exercises 
by which the children might play buying and selling, 
and the making of change by actual counting and 
handling of money, it w^ould add greatly to the inter- 
est and the usefulness of the lesson. Even if buttons 
of different sizes were used to represent money in 
these operations, it would prove a valuable exercise. 

Square Measure. — It will be easy to illustrate 
square measure by the aid of objects. Cut pieces of 
pasteboard or hea^^y paper one inch square, and pieces 
one foot square. On the latter draw lines across at 
right angles with the sides, one inch apart, to repre- 
sent the number of square inches in a square foot. 



TEACHING THE TABLES BY OBJECTS. 159 

Then cut from a large sheet one piece three feet 
square to represent the square yard, and draw hnes 
across to show its divisions into square feet. 

Let the children apply the square inches to the 
square foot, and learn how many it takes to make a 
square foot. Then let them apply the square foot to 
the square yard, and learn how many it takes to make 
one square yard. 

They may also be requested to measure the tops of 
their desks, their slates, the floor, and the school-yard, 
and to tell the number of square inches, or square feet, 
or square yards in each. 

Means should be devised for teaching each table by 
the things themselves, and in this manner the children 
will come to possess clear and definite ideas of the 
tables, and easily learn to remember them ; whereas, 
by the methods commonly used in teaching them, 
they slip out of the mind almost as soon as committed 
there. Being memorized without being understood, 
they are but dry facts, and consequently slippery so 
long as they are not used ; hence it should not be ex- 
pected that the child will really l^noio any thing of the 
tables until it learns to use them, and sees their rela- 
tion to things. But, with an understanding of the 
objects used or referred to in the several tables, and 
the processes of using them, the child will easily com- 
mit the tables to memory, and acquire readiness in 
their application. 

Methods of illustrating long measure, cloth measure, 
liquid and dry measures, and weight, are given in the 
divisions of "Size" and "Weio-ht." 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 



"Let children measure, count, weigh, and compare." 
LESSON I. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF SIZE IN GENEEAL. 

To-day we will learn to distinguisli things by their 
size. Some things, you know, are small, some large. 
Children are not all of the same size, nor of one height. 
See, I have placed these boys in a row before you ; 
now tell me which is the tallest. Here are three 
books ; which is the largest ? Let all answer. 

One of you may come here and pick out the largest 
block on the table. Is that right, children ? 

Another may come and select two blocks that are 
of the same size. Will the class tell me which of 
these blocks that have just been selected is the larger? 
" Neither ; both are of the same size." 

Now another may come and select two small balls. 

It may be added that, in all these exercises, the en- 
tire class should take an active part by voting on the 
correctness of each selection made, or in some similar 
method whereby each pupil may have an opportunity, 
and be encouraged to express his or her ideas. 

Is a cat as large as a dog ? Which is the largest, 



IDEA OF SIZE IN GENERAL. 161 

a dog, a sheep, or a cow ? Is a cow as tall as a boy ? 
Is a cow as tall as a man ? Could a cow Avalk through 
the door ? 

Have you ever seen an elephant ? Is an elephant 
as large as a cow ? Could an elephant come into this 
room at the door ? Do you think an elephant* could 
stand in this room ? 

Is a cat as large as a rat ? Is a mouse as large as 
a rat? What is the smallest animal you have ever 
seen? 

Suppose you should try to catch mice to make a 
pile as large as a cat, it would take a great many 
mice; then, you know, it would take a great many 
cats to equal the size of a cow ; but an elephant is 
larger than a great many cows. How would a mouse 
look by the side of an elephant ? 

Yon drink from a tin cup ; will a pail hold more 
water than a cup ? Which will hold the most milk, a 
tea-cup or a bowl ? 

Which will hold the most water, this cup or the 
tumbler ? Let us try it. I will fill the cup with wa- 
ter, and then pour it into the tumbler. See, the tum- 
bler is full, and the water is not all out of the cuj). 
" The cup holds the most." 

Here is a grain of sand, this is a gravel-stone, and 
that is a pebble ; which is the largest? "A pebble." 

There is a stone ; compare the pebble with the 
stone, and tell me the result. '^The stone is the 
larger." 

* An elephant is from ten to twelve feet in height, and from ten 
to fifteen feet in length. 



162 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

Which is the larger, one of your marbles or this 
pebble ? " Some marbles are larger than this pebble, 
and some are smaller." 

'Now one of you may come and select the smallest 
thing on the table, and tell me what it is. "A grain 
of sand." 

Now let one come and select the largest fruit. "An 
apple." 

Note. — Before introducing the subject of these lessons, the 
teacher should provide a variety of objects of different sizes, 
widths, and lengths. Large and small books, large and small 
marbles, bullets and shot, large and small balls, large and small 
boxes, grains of sand, gravel-stones, pebbles, fruit of various sizes, 
straight sticks and strings of various lengths ; also foot-rules, yard- 
sticks, cups and measures. 



LESSON 11. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OP LENGTH. 

To give the idea of length, the teacher may show 
the children strings or sticks of different lengths, in- 
quiring which is the longest and which the shortest. 
The pupils should also be directed to take these sticks 
and place them together, and thus determine their 
relative lengths. 

Next let them draw lines on the blackboard of va- 
rious lengths, and call upon the pupils to point to those 
which are shortest, or longest, and to select laths of 
the same lengths as the lines. 



IDEA OF MEASURE. 163 

Ask wbicli girl has the longest hau', which boy has 
the shortest hair. 

Require the children to divide Imes, drawn in dif- 
ferent directions upon the blackboard, into two, three, 
or four equal parts. This is an important exercise, 
and should be practiced frequently. The other pupils 
may be required to express their opinion of the cor- 
rectness of these divisions ; the question may be final- 
ly determined by actual measurement. 

[Holding up two books.] Which of these books is 
the larger ? Here are two hats ; which is the larger ? 
Which is the longer slate? This exercise may be 
continued, thus directing attention to all the promi- 
nent objects about the room. 



LESSOlSr HI. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OE MEASURE.* 

Which is the longer, this mch-rule or your little 
finger? Is your pencil as long as your thumb? 
Which finger is the longest ? 

* It is of little use to require children to repeat the tables of 
measures unless we first make them familiar with the units of 
measure upon which the tables are based. A child can have no 
idea that twelve inches make a foot until it knows what one inch 
is, nor that three feet make a yard until it learns the length of 
one foot. It can not comprehend the quantity of fluid that it takes 
to make a gallon, or four quarts, until it knows how much is one 
quart. These things or units the child can never learn by repeat- 
ing them ; it must see them, measure them, before it can understand 
and knoiv them. Young children can readily learn these things, 
if they are rightly presented, even before they can read. 



164 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

Now I will draw a straight line on the blackboard, 
and after you have measured its length with your 
eyes, or guessed at it, you may apply this inch-rule, 
and thus determine its true length. 

Here is a book ; how many inches long is it ? " Six, 
seven, five." Let us apj^ly the inch-rule, and see who 
is right — one, two, three, four, five, six, seven ; seven 
is right. James, you guessed seven; take the rule 
and measure the next object. The girl or boy that 
guesses nearest to the correct length is entitled to 
take the rule and test the accuracy of the guesses on 
the next object. 

How many inches long is this knife ? " Four, two, 
three, four, three." James measures and counts — 
" one, two, three, and almost another inch." Say then 
that it is nearly four inches long. " The knife is near- 
ly four inches long." 

After the children have become familiar with the 
length of one inch, two inches, and three inches, so as 
to measure quite accurately with the eye, give them 
. a foot-rule, tell them to apply their inch-measure to it, 
and learn how long it is. In this manner they will 
come to know that twelve inches make one foot by 
actual experience. 

Children may amuse themselves in this way for 
hours and days by guessing at lengths and distances, 
and then measuring them to ascertain how nearly 
they had guessed. While the amusement is profita- 
ble to the child, the most valuable feature of this ex- 
ercise is that it trains the eye and the judgment in 
determining length and distances. 



IDEA OF RELATIVE DISTANCE. 165 

Occasionally the teacher might give each pupil a 
three or a six-inch rule while at their seats, and allow 
them to amuse themselves by measuring their fingers, 
slates, etc. They might be requested to draw lines 
on their slate, guess at their lengths, and then meas- 
ure them. 



LESSON ly. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF RELATIVE DISTANCE. 

Which of you resides nearest to the school ? "Who 
has the greatest distance to come ? Does James re- 
side as near to the school as Henry ? Which boy has 
the longest walk to reach home from school ? Which 
is the nearer to the school-house, the store or the gro- 
cery ? Which would be the longer walk, from here 
to the church, or to the post-office ? 

Lucy, whose house is nearest to the one where you 
reside ? George, can you tell me which is nearer to 
your house, the drug-store or the shoemaker's ? Mary, 
what streets must you cross to go to the milliner's ? 
Which is the farther, the bridge or Mr. Smith's or- 
chard ? 

A great number of similar questions should be ask- 
ed, until the idea of relative distance seems to be 
clearly understood by every child. 



166 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

LESSON Y. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF MEASUEED DISTANCE. 

Place in the hands of the children foot-rules, and 
let them measure these with an inch-rule until they 
learn to know how many inches make one foot. 

Next, let them measure the table, a door, a bench, 
and other objects, and thus become familiar with the 
length of a foot, and its use in measuring. 

Draw marks on the blackboard one, two, or. three 
feet long; request the puj^ils to guess at the length 
of the line, then to determine the accuracy of the guess 
by actual measurement. The j)upil who guesses near- 
est to the length has the honor of applying the rule to 
determine the guesses at the length of the next object. 

When the children have had sufficient practice in 
measuring with a foot-rule to be able to judge quite 
accurately of the length of a foot by the eye, and in 
applying the rule for determining length, a yard-stick 
may be given them, with directions to measure the 
length and width of the school-room, also of the i^lay- 
ground. 

Give them sufficient examples in applying the foot 
to the yard, that they may clearly understand that 
three feet indke one yard. In their measurements 
with the yard, require the pupils to state the number 
of feet which any object or distance exceeds the full 
yards, as two yards and one foot, three yards and two 
feet, etc. 



IDEA OF MEASURED DISTANCE. 167 

If the yard-sticks which are placed in their hands 
are properly made, the children can also be taught, 
while measuring strings or tape, to tell how many 
yards and parts of a yard are in each piece, as five 
yards and one half, etc. 

Distances in the field or in the street may be meas- 
m-ed with the yard-stick, and these may be extended 
as far as a hundred yards. The exercise of guessing 
at any given distance, in yards, should be practiced, 
and the accuracy of the guess determined by measure- 
ment. Too much importance, in training the child in 
a knowledge of distance and of measurement, can 
hardly be placed upon these exercises, which require 
the actual use of the rule and yard-stick in measuring. 
It is iGhat the child does that it learns to know. 

How to measure a Quarter of a Mile.— Give two 

boys a string ten yards long. One of the boys takes 
hold of one end of the string, and walks along the 
sidewalk or in the street, or wherever they are to 
measure the distance assigiied them, until the string 
is drawn out to its full length, while the other boy 
stands still at the place where the measurement is to 
commence. 

The boy who takes the lead carries eleven sticks 
and four pebbles. When he has carried his end of 
the string to its entire length, he drops a stick on the 
walk, or thrusts it into the ground at the end of the 
string, then proceeds as before. As the boy who fol- 
lows comes to the stick, he holds his end of the string 
at that point until the leader has drawn it straight 



168 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

again and deposited another stick. The second boy 
now picks up the stick and goes forward to the place 
of the next, and proceeds as before. 

When the following boy has picked up eleven sticks 
in this manner, he exchanges them with his leader for 
a pebble, and they proceed again as before. When 
the following boy has exchanged his sticks four times, 
and obtained four j^ebbles, they will have measured 
forty-four lengths of their string, or four hundred and 
forty yards, which is a quarter of a mile. 

The same process may be continued until half a 
mile or a mile has been measured. If more than a 
quarter of a mile is measured, the boys should be in- 
structed to place some mark to indicate the quarters, 
half a mile, and the mile. In the same manner they 
may be required to measure the distance around a 
block in a city, or to some neighbor's, if in the country. 

Subsequently, pupils may be sent out singly to walk 
a quarter of a mile and back, or half a mile, or even a 
mile. By experiences such as the foregoing, children 
may learn to know what a mile signifies. Thus they 
early acquire a standard by which to judge of dis- 
tances. 



LESSON yi. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OP WIDTH. 

Probably the most successful way to develop the 
idea of width, breadth, narrowness, etc., is to select 
pieces of ribbon, strips of paper, or shingles of various 



THE IDEA OF WIDTH. 169 

widths, and require the children to pick out the wide 
and the narroio ones ; then to select the loidest^ then 
the narrowest ; then two of the same width, calling 
upon the class to decide in each case on the correct- 
ness of the selection made. 

Show them narrow books and wide books, and re- 
quire them to exercise their observation in determin- 
ing which are widest and which narrowest. 

Draw parallel lines on the blackboard an inch apart, 
others two, three, and four inches apart, and request 
them to point out those which have narrow spaces 
between them, also those with wide spaces. 

Here is a slate, a book, and a ruler ; which is the 
widest? What can you say of the slate and this 
sheet of paper ? " They are both of the same width." 

Which is the widest aisle in the school-room? 
Which is the wider, the blackboard or the top of the 
desk? Let us measure and see. "The blackboard 
is wider than the top of the desk." 

Which is the wider, the school-room or the street ? 

You may take these strings and measure during re- 
cess. One boy may stand close to the fence on one 
side of the street, while another takes the other end 
across and pulls it straight, then cuts it off close to 
the fence on that side. Then take the other string 
and measure the width of the school-room in the same 
manner. At the next lesson you may tell me the re- 
sult, which is wider, this room or the street. 

Note. — During all of these lessons on size^ the "chart" contain- 
ing the standard for an inch and a foot, and ilhistrations of width, 
should hang before the children, and frequent reference be made 
H 



170 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

to them in measuring lengths and widths by the eye. Foot-rules, 
yard-sticks, strings, tape, ribbon, strips of paper, and pasteboard, 
also laths, should be used in illustrating length, width, etc. 



LESSON YII. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF THICKNESS, HEIGHT, AND 
DEPTH. 

Provide tissue paper, the thinnest and thickest 
writing paper, cards, pasteboard, binder's board, a 
piece of clapboard, a piece of flooring, and a piece of 
plank; also pieces of ganze, thin muslin, silk, linen, 
sail-cloth, sacking, and of carpet ; wafers, buttons, dif- 
ferent coins, a three-cent piece, half dime, dime, quar- 
ter and half dollar. 

After a variety of exercises with these objects, se- 
lecting the thin and the thick ones of each class, and 
exercises in comparing one thing with another, as the 
paper with the pasteboard, the wafer with the silk, 
the carpet with the gauze, etc., talk with them about 
the thickness of other objects, as thick and thin bread 
and butter, thick and thin cake and pie, thick and thin 
shoes, and coats, and hats. 

Height. — When the idea of thickness is familiar to 
all the children, they may be led to compare heights ; 
as, which is the tallest boy or girl in the class ? 

Is a horse as tall as a cow ? Is a tree as high as a 
house ? Did you ever see a tree as high as the church 
steeple ? 



NECESSITY OF STANDARD MEASURE. 171 

Depth. — In the same manner the idea of depth 
may be taught. Is the pail deeper than the cup ? Is 
a tub as deep as a pail ? Which is the deeper, a tub 
or a barrel ? Is a cistern as deep as a barrel ? Is a 
well as deep as a cistern ? 



LESSO]^ VIII. 

TO SHOW THE NECESSITY OE STANDARD MEASURE. 

One of you may go to the table and bring to me a 
long string ; another may bring a long stick; another 
a short stick, and another a short string. 

]^ow let me compare this long stick and the long 
string. What is the result? "The string is much 
longer than the stick." Now we will compare the 
short string and the short stick. What do you ob- 
serve ? " The stick is longer than the string." 

ISTow suppose your mother or your sister wanted 
some ribbon for her bonnet, and she should go to the 
store and ask for a long piece of ribbon, the store- 
keeper would not know how much to give her. " 

You see, what one of you called a long string was 
a great deal longer than a stick which another called 
a long stick ; and what one of you called a short stick 
was a great deal longer than the string which another 
called a short string. 

If I should tell you to give me a thick board, you 
might hand me this piece of flooring when I wanted 
the plank ; or if I wanted a thick piece of cloth, you 



172 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SIZE. 

might give me a piece of sail-clotli or carpet when I 
only wanted a piece of linen or of broadcloth. 

Suppose you should ask for a thick piece of bread 
and butter, and Bridget should cut it as thick as this 
plank, you would tell her that you did not want it so 
thick: you wanted a thinner piece; then she might 
cut it almost as thin as the knife-blade. 

After such examples, or similar ones, using other 
illustrations, the teacher may proceed to an apj)lica- 
tion of the idea of a necessity for a fixed standard of 
measurement, to determine how long a long object 
is, or how short a short one is. 

I presume that you now understand the imjDortance 
of learning to measure the length of objects by inches, 
feet, and yards. Short lengths we measure by inch- 
es and feet, and tell how many feet and inches long 
they are ; but longer distances we measure with rods 
and miles; but when we measure cloth and ribbon 
we use a yard-stick, and tell how many yards long 
they are. 

Now if you should go to the store to buy ribbon, you 
would ask for some number of yards. If you wanted 
to buy boards, you would tell how many inches thick 
you wanted them, and how many feet long. Every 
storekeeper has a yard-measure, and when any one 
asks him for a piece of cloth three yards long, he 
knows just how much to send. 

The teacTier should mark a line a foot in length on 
the blackboard, and another on the floor ; then anoth- 
er line a yard in length by the side of each of these ; 
also inch-lines by the side of the foot-lines. 



TEXTEOOK RESEAM ttHTER 



NECESSITY OF STANDARD MEASURE. 173 

By a few illustrations the children may be shown 
that they can determine the Avidth of ribbons by inches, 
and that with these same measures the length, breadth, 
height, and depth are measured; also the distances 
between objects. 

This plan should be pursued and similar illustra- 
tions given with gill and quart cups, and quart and 
peck measures, to explain liquid and dry measures, 
and show that we also have standards for these. 
Water and sand are usually so abundant that there 
can be no lack of materials. It would amply repay 
the trouble if the teacher would borrow a small bag 
of grain, a half bushel, a peck, and quart measure of 
some farmer or grocer, to illustrate dry measure. 

During all these lessons the eye and the hand of the 
pupil should be exercised as much as possible; the 
eye in observing shape, length, width, and dimension 
of objects, and the hand in representing and handling 
what the eye has perceived. Care should be taken 
not to tell children any thing that they may be led to 
see or ascertain for themselves from objects, illustra- 
tions, and questions. 

It will be profitable for them to practice the lesson 
in form, drawing large and small angles, long and 
short lines, large and small squares, triangles, parallel- 
ograms, circles, etc. These exercises, while they prove 
a present amusement, will be of invaluable benefit to 
them in the difierent manual labors at which they 
may be employed in after life. Require the children 
to do as well as to tell^ for it is thus that the labor of 
the teacher becomes most valuable. 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF WEIGHT. 



The motto, " Things before words," should be con- 
stantly before the primary teacher, and especially so 
when developing ideas of size, distance, and weight. 
Words alone can not convey to the mind of a child 
the weight of a single pomid or ounce, nor of the 
length of a foot, a yard, or an inch. There are things 
that must be handled and seen before they can be 
known. 

Individual instances there are of astonishing accu- 
racy of judgment in regard to the weight of objects, 
of animals, etc. ; but this accuracy has been attained 
by cultivation, by early and long-continued attention 
and practice, never by repeating tables of weight. 
Probably not one person in ten, whose only knowl- 
edge of weight has been derived from repeating the 
table, could determine the weight of an object, either 
by judgment or actual weighing, of two pounds and a 
half. 

In making provision for conducting exercises on 
this subject, a great variety of objects should be fur- 
nished: balls and cubes of the same size, but of differ- 
ent substances, as wood, cork, lead, iron; light objects 
of large size, and heavy substances of a small size, but 



IDEAS OF WEIGHT. 175 

of the same weight ; small bags of wool or cotton, of 
bran, of beans, and shot ; one vial filled with water, 
and another with quicksilver. 

These various objects the pupils should be allowed 
to handle freely, and to compare the weight of one 
with that of another of the same size but of lighter 
substance, as wood and iron, cork and wood, lead and 
iron, a bag of bran with a bag of wool, a bag of beans 
with a bag of shot. 

Bodies that are lighter and those that are heavier 
than water may be distinguished by actual experi- 
ment. The resistance of the air to falling bodies may 
be illustrated by letting fall at the same instant such 
things as a bunch of cotton or wool and a piece of 
lead, and watching their unequal descent. 

Another step in developing ideas of weight, and the 
most practical one, is to procure a pair of common 
scales and let the children weigh. Of some of the 
weights there should be several, for the purpose of 
showing equality, as two | oz., eight 1 oz., four 4 oz., 
two 8 oz., and one each of 1 lb. and 2 lb. weights. 
With these teach the children to weigh an ounce, four 
ounces, half a pound, a pound, a quarter of a pound, 
etc. Let them guess at the weight of an object, then 
weigh it and test the accuracy of their guesses. 

Some idea of mechanical powers might be given, in 
connection with this subject, by means of a few sim- 
ple experiments. 



17(? DEVELOPING IDEAS OF WEIGHT. 

LESSON I. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF WEIGHT. 

What do you see in my hands ? " Two balls." 
What can you say of then- size ? " Both balls are of 
the same size." 

Of what are these balls made ? " One is made of 
cork and the other of lead." 

I wish some one to take them and tell me which is the 
lighter of the two. " The ball of cork is the hghter." 

J£ I let this ball of lead drop from my hand, in which 
direction will it go ? " It will fall to the floor." Yes, 
we never see any thing fall up to the ceiling or to one 
side, but always downward, because the earth draws 
things which are near to it toward itself The earth 
draws all children, and men, and animals toward it. 
If you should chmb a tree and jump from it, you 
would fall to the earth. 

Now observe what takes jDlace when I let this ball 
of lead fall from my hand. " It strikes the floor and 
makes a loud noise." Now see if the same takes 
place when I drop the ball of cork. " No, it makes 
only a faint sound." Why is this ? " Because the 
lead is heavy and the cork is light." 

I have here two more balls, one of wood and one 
of stone. Who will come and try their difierent 
weights ? This boy says the ball of stone is heavier 
than the ball of wood ; now I wish each of you to try 
them and see if he is correct. All agree with him. 



WEIGHT COMPARED. 177 

!N"o"w take this ball of cork and tlie ball of wood, 
and tell me whether the cork is as heavy as the wood. 
" No, the cork is lighter than the wood." 

Objects Compared with Water.— I am now going 
to place these fom* balls — the cork, the wood, the lead, 
and the stone — in this pail of water, and you must ob- 
serve what takes place. 

" Two of them sink, and two swim." 

Why do the balls of cork and wood swim ? You 
can not tell ? Well, I will try to explain. Wood and 
cork are lighter than water, and because of that they 
stay on the surface; but lead and stone are heavier 
than water, therefore they sink down in it. 

A fish can swim in water because it is about the 
same weight as water, but an oyster has a heavy shell 
and must lie at the bottom. 



LESSON 11. 

WEIGHT COMPAEED. 

What did you learn at the last lesson ? " Some- 
thing about weight." Are all things of the same 
weight ? " No ; cork and wood are light, but iron 
and lead are heavy." 

Did you learn any thing more ? " Yes ; that cork 
and wood will swim on water, and that lead and iron 
will sink." 

I will now tell you more about weight. If objects 
had no weight, men and animals would not need to be 
H2 



178 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF WEIGHT. 

SO Strong as they are now. Large animals must now 
have more strength than small ones, to be able to 
move about. 

Could one of these children lift me from the floor ? 
No, I am so heavy that you are not strong enough to 
lift me ; but I could lift either of you, because you are 
lighter than I am. A horse can carry a man, because 
it is larger and heavier than a man, hence has more 
strength. 

Some objects, you observe, are very light compared 
with others of the same size. Tell me some things 
that are light. " Cork, cotton, wool, feathers, chaff of 
wheat." 

Now tell me some that are heavy. " Stones, iron, 
lead, corn." 

Here is a dime, and there is a quarter of a dollar ; 
which is the heavier ? " The quarter of a dollar." 
Which is worth the most ? " The quarter of a dol- 
lar." Why? " Because it is larger and heavier than 
the dime." Yes ; metals are valued by their weight. 

When I put this iron weight into one scale, and 
this i^iece of wood in the other, what happens ? "The 
scale with the iron sinks down, the other rises." Why 
is this ? " Because the iron is heavier than the wood." 
What, then, may you say of wood ? " It is lighter 
than iron." 

I will now put a package of wool into one scale and 
the wood in the other. Which appears the heavier 
now? "The wood." Which is the larger? "The 
package of wool." What, then, can you say of the 
wool ? " It is lighter than wood." 



NECESSITY OF STANDARD WEIGHTS. 179 

LESSON III. 

THE NECESSITY OF STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

I presume you remember the lesson about length, 
and how we could tell the shopkeeper the length of a 
piece of ribbon or cloth which we desired him to cut 
for us. 

It was, you know, because all have a yard-measure 
of the same length, so that when a person wishes to 
get a piece of cloth, he first finds out how many yards 
he wants, and then tells the storekeeper the number 
of yards desired. 

Now, when I want to buy shot, or flour, or sugar, 
or wool, I can not measure them with the yard-stick ; 
I must use a different measure for these things. Who 
can tell me how we measure these, since we do not 
find how long they are ? 

" We see how heavy they are." How can we do 
this? "With scales and weights." Yes: what is 
one of the smallest weights we use ? " An ounce." 
What is the heavier weight called? "A pound." 

If you should go to the grocery for sugar, would 
you ask for a yard ? " No, I should ask for a pound." 
Very well. You see now why people use measures 
and weights. 

Can you tell me why they use them ? " So as to 
tell how long things are, and how heavy they are." 



180 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF WEIGHT. 

LESSON IV. 

WEIGHING. 

You have learned tliat some objects are measured 
and others weighed. Now I will show you how to 
weigh. 

[Place the scales and weights on a low table before 
the children. Let each pupil compare, by their hands, 
the weight of four 1 oz. weights with one 4 oz.] Now 
tell me which is the heaviest, the largest weight or 
the four small ones. " They are just alike." Let us 
weigh them and see. I will put the large weight in 
this scale, and the four small ones in the other. What 
is the result? "The scales are even." Then both 
weigh the same. 

The small weights are one ounce each, the large one 
\^fouT ounces. 

Now let us put the four-ounce and the four one- 
ounce weights into one scale, and this large weight 
into the other. " The scales are even again." Then 
these five small weights are equal to, or weigh the 
same as the large one. 

Let us see how many ounces the small ones weigh, 
one four-ounce and four one-ounce — eight ounces. 
Then the large one weighs eight ounces. 

Here is a large weight — [takes up the 1 lb. weight] 
— which I will place in one scale, and then put the 
smaller weights in the other. The scales balance 
again. 



WEIGHING. 181 

Let us now see how many ounces this large one 
weighs. Here is one eight-ounce weight and eight 
oimc6-weights — sixteen ounces all together. Then 
this large one weighs sixteen ounces. 

Proceed in the same manner to compare four four- 
ounce weights with the pound weight ; then compare 
two half-pounds with the pound; then two quarters 
with the half pound, etc., etc. 

When the children have had several exercises of 
this nature, and become familiar with the diiferent 
weights, let them practice weighing objects, as bags 
of beans, shot, sand, etc. Let them first guess at the 
weight of the object, then weigh it and ascertain 
how near they have guessed. Let the correctness 
of the guessing be decided by the pupil that weighs 
the object, and the one who guesses nearest to the 
true weight may weigh the next object. 

All things which we see have weight. If it were 
not so, we should not have power to move or to work. 
Even the rain could not fall from the sky to make 
things grow, if it had not some weight. 

If we find it difficult to carry heavy things, we 
should remember how useful it is for things to have 
weight, and that God, in his wisdom and goodness, 
made every thing just as heavy as it should be. He 
made the air light for us to breathe and to move 
about in, the stones heavy for our houses, light wool 
and cotton for warm clothes, and heavy metals to 
make our tools. Let us thank Him that He has made 
every thing just as it should be. 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SOUND, 



The importance of early attention to sounds is not 
understood by most teachers and parents. We do 
not refer now to musical tones, but to the discrimina- 
tion of ordinary sounds. It is impossible to teach a 
child to become a pleasing reader until he can readily 
discriminate and imitate sounds of the human voice. 
It can not do these well until it has learned to observe 
different sounds. A child that is entirely deaf can not 
learn to talk, because it can not hear. It has all the 
organs of speech perfectly formed, but it can not learn 
how to use them, because, when it makes any sound, 
it does not know what that sound is. 

A great many people hear sounds, but take no 
pleasure in them, simply because they never have been 
taught to discriminate and appreciate them. In giv- 
ing this sense, God gave us with it the ability to de- 
rive pleasure from its exercise ; but, like all other fac- 
ulties, it needs culture. Hearing is one of the ave- 
nues through which the mind gains a knowledge of 
the external world, and, as such, it is deserving of the 
attention of all who have any thing to do with the 
training and development of children. 



DISTINGUISHING SOUNDS. 183 

LESSON I. 

DISTINGUISHING COMMON SOUNDS. 

It is doubtful whether one child in five could name 
ten sounds made by the human voice and animals ; 
but let attention be directed to the sounds made by 
the cat, the dog, the cow, the sheep, the pig, the hen, 
the rooster, the goose, the duck, and in a week or 
two the same children will be able to enumerate ten 
times ten sounds. 

I. — Let sounds be made by familiar objects, and the 
children required to observe the sound, and tell ob- 
jects from the sounds they produce without seeing 
them. Blow a whistle, a flute, or a fife ; ring bells, 
ring an empty glass, then one filled with water; a 
triangle, and various pieces of metal, requesting the 
children to tell the name of the object from its sound. 

If the teacher has two bells, let the attention of the 
pupils be directed to the different sounds produced by 
ringing them. Direct their observation to the differ- 
ent sounds produced by the church bells which they 
hear, and lead them to distinguish the bells of the dif- 
ferent churches and factories by their sounds. 

n. — Place several children out of sight, or require 
those in the class to close their eyes, Avhile those se- 
lected speak in succession or repeat some sentence, 
and the class try to discriminate their different voices, 
and to call by name the boy or girl who spoke. 

III. — Let the children mention sounds produced by 



184 DEVELOPIKG IDEAS OF SOUND. 

men and animals, as laughing, crying, sighing, sob- 
bing, shouting, singing, barking, growling, mewing, 
purring, bleating, lowing, squealing, cackling, hissing, 
etc.* 



LESSON II. 

CLASSIFYING COMMON SOIINDS. 

When the children have become familiar with dis- 
tinguishing common sounds, they may be led to clas- 
sify them ; as, voices of man, sounds made by beasts, 
notes of birds, sounds produced by the steps of man 
and animals, sounds made by insects, sounds made by 
the motion of carriages, by machinery, by workmen in 
their different employments, sounds produced by the 
motion of water, of air, by electricity. 

Sounds may also be divided into kinds, as roaring, 
rumbling, crushing, crackling, murmuring, rolling, 
tinkling, echoing, and so on. 

Children should be taught to distinguish all these 
various sounds, and to apply the appropriate name 
to each. They may also be encouraged to imitate 
different sounds, and even to mimic those of birds 
and animals, as the note of the cuckoo, the quail, the 
sounds made by sheep, by cats, dogs, etc. 

* The practice of allowing children to caricature sounds of ciy- 
ing, moaning, sobbing, and the natural expressions of feeling, is 
objectionable. 



CHARACTER OF SOUNDS. 185 

LESSON III. 

CHAKACTER OF SOUNDS. 

If the teacher can sing— all primary teachers ought 
to be singers — she may sing some simple melodies 
which are quick and lively, others which are slow, re- 
questing the children to listen and tell which they like 
best. 

Teach them to enunciate the elementary sounds of 
the language. Begin with the four principal sounds • 
of a. Make the sound of a in hale, and require the 
pupils to imitate it; then the sound of a in har. 
When they can imitate these, proceed with a in ball 
and a in hat. After they have learned to give these 
four sounds of «, let them imitate the sounds of e in 
me and met, and follow with other elementary sounds. 
But do not introduce this exercise as the sounds of 
letters; children may be thus drilled long before they 
know the name of a single letter. Do not even say 
any thing about the sound of a in hale, har, hall, hat; 
but simply enunciate the sound and request the chil- 
dren to imitate it. 

If properly conducted, this will prove a very useful 
exercise in preparing for subsequent lessons in read- 
ing, and especially so for phonetic exercises. 

When the children have become familiar with the 
leading vowel sounds, they may be trained to distin- 
guish between those that are loud and soft, high and 
low, long and short, quick and slow. 



186 DEVELOPIN'G IDEAS OF SOUND. 

Attention may also be directed to the various feel- 
ings expressed by the human voice in exclamations 
of joy, sorrow, mirth, contempt. 

The kind and amount of instruction given in each 
lesson must, of course, depend entirely upon the age 
and advancement of the pupils. The subject may as 
easily be treated in a way to suit a child of three 
years as one of ten years of age. Such preliminary 
lessons are an excellent preparation for correctness of 
ear in speaking and singing. Indeed, the imitative 
powers of children, when developed, are so great that 
no refinement of tone or inflection of voice is diffi- 
cult to them, and hence the importance of a pure pro- 
nunciation and correct manner of speaking in the 
teacher, as defects in this respect are as readily imi- 
tated and bad habits contracted as are correct ones 
under good examples. 



lesso:n^ iy. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. 

When a hot day renders the children languid, or 
their spirits flag, enlivening and interesting exercises 
may be had in requiring the pupils to imitate sounds 
of nature, machinery, or employments. In this man- 
ner, amusing exercises may be introduced that will 
cause the children to forget that the school-room ever 
is a weary place. One exercise may be introduced 
called 



MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. 187 

The Winds. — The teacher says, "^ calm.'''' All 
immediately become quiet and motionless, and con- 
tinue so until the teacher says, "^ breezeP All then 
rub their hands in imitation of the rustling of the 
leaves. "^ gcde.''^ The children add to the rubbing 
of the hands a slight hissing. "JL storm.'''' The rub- 
bing of the hands and hissing are continued, and a 
slight noise with the feet added. '■'■A hurricane.'''' 
All the movements are continued with greater vehe- 
mence. At a given signal all cease, and a calm fol- 
lows. 

The steam-boat. — To imitate the noise of the en- 
gine, all clap their hands twice, then give one beat on 
their knees, at the same time making their heels give 
a shght blow on the floor. These motions are contin- 
uously repeated. 

Accelerated Motion.— This is produced by clap- 
ping hands, at first very slow, and gradually doing it 
quicker and quicker, until it is done as rapidly as pos- 
sible, when the teacher gives the signal to stop. It 
may be repeated several times. 

Sawing. — The children are arranged in two equal 
rows, facing each other, and standing. All put out 
their arms, and the pairs move toward and from each 
other, hissing in imitation of sawing a log with a 
cross-cut saw. Or they may imitate the wood-sawyer, 
bending their bodies up and down, making a hissing 
noise as they move. 



188 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF SOUND. 

Counting, with Movements.— Count from one to 

twenty, and slap the hands upon the knees at every 
other number; from twenty to forty, slapj)ing the 
knees at each number. 

Change Voice in Counting.— Count from one to 

twenty, raising the voice by ascending the scale from 
07ie to three andj^ye at each three numbers: (l) one, 
(3) two, (5) three, (1) four, (3) five, (5) six, (1) seven, 
(3) eight, etc. 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 



Lessons on the human body form a good introduc- 
tion to the study of natural history of the animal cre- 
ation. They are thus adapted to carrying out the 
principle of starting from the Tcnoion to teach the 
unJcnown. 

" Children should be somewhat famihar with their 
own frame ; they ought to have correct ideas on that 
which so intimately concerns themselves. The sub- 
ject is also ever present, requiring nothing for its 
illustration other than that which is common to all. 
Such lessons will furnish opportunity for correcting 
any vague and imperfect notions which the children 
may have acquired, for supplying them with a vocab- 
ulary of expressive terms, and for giving them such 
an acquaintance with their own organization as may 
make it a standard for comparison with that of other 
animals, thus preparing them to understand many 
wonderful details in the modification and adaptation 
of the organs of animals to their pecuHar habits, pro- 
pensities, and localities." 

In conducting these lessons, care should be taken 
not to be too minute. The simple outlines of their 
various forms and obvious uses, also the natural de- 
pendence of one upon the other, embrace the chief 
points which should be presented. 



190 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

LESSON I. 

DISTIXGUISHING THE PEIXCIPAL PAETS OF THE BODY. 

Let the teacher call upon children to imitate her as 
she points to the different parts of the body, at the 
same time repeating the name of the part ; as, head — 
face — forehead — eyes — ears — nose — mouth — neck — 
shoulders — trunk — sides — ^back — arms — hands — legs 
— knees — feet. 

Next, the teacher may name the part and request 
the pupils to point to it. Then a boy may be called 
out before the class, and each member allowed to 
name one part of the body for the teacher to point 
out on the boy. Then another pupil may take the 
same position, while the teacher points out the part 
of the body, and the pupils name the parts. If a mis- 
take is made, let the class correct it. 



LESSON IL 

TOUCHING PARTS OF THE BODY. 

The pupils may be called upon to imitate the teach- 
er as she touches different parts of the body while 
naming it. Right hand on the head ; right arm ; 
right eye ; left eye ; nose ; chin ; left cheek ; right 
cheek; left shoulder; right knee; left ear; right side; 
left elbow; forehead; neck, etc. [The teacher touches 
each part as she repeats the name of it.] 



TOUCHING PARTS OF THE BODY. 191 

When the children have learned to imitate a suffi- 
cient variety of movements, the teacher may repeat 
the name of the movement at the time of performing 
the motion. Right hand up; left hand up; touch 
shoulders; touch ears; touch eyebrows; forehead; 
chin; nose; elbow; wrist; knee; fold arms; turn 
head to the right ; head to the left ; head back ; head 
forward; head erect; touch crown of the head; back 
of the head; nostrils; upper lip ; neck; breast; arm- 
pits; sides; back; knuckles; wrists; nails; thumbs; 
fingers ; stamp with right foot ; with left foot. 

Care should be taken that the children learn to im- 
itate these movements exactly, and that all do them 
at the same time. It may be necessary to go through 
with them several times. 



Second Exercise. — The teacher may name the parts 
of the body, and require the children to touch them, 
without being led by the teacher. Left w^'ist ; left 
elbow ; shoulders ; neck ; chin ; nostrils ; ears ; eye- 
brows; crown of the head; back of the head; fore- 
head; cheeks; armpits; sides; breasts; back; knees; 
raise left foot ; raise right foot ; hands above the head ; 
clap hands; extend fingers; close hand; clap hands 
once, twice, three times ; fold arms. 

Now let one of the pupils stand before the class 
and go through with similar exercises, while the chil- 
dren imitate the movements. At first the teacher 
may dictate the movements, while the pupil repeats 
the name and performs for the class to imitate. 

This exercise may be varied by each member of the 



192 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

class calling in turn for some movement, while the pu- 
pil represents it. Again, he may be allowed to call 
for movements, or parts of the body to be touched, 
while the class perform in accordance. 

Third Exercise. — Next, the teacher may touch 
different parts of the body, and request the children 
to name the parts touched. Afterward they may be 
required to imitate the teacher, and repeat the name 
of the movement ; as, I am touching my head ; I am 
touching my chin — my nose — my cheek — my shoul- 
der — my ear — my elbow, etc. 

This exercise teaches them to express the idea of 
the movement in words as well as to perform it. 



LESSON m. 

TO DISTINGUISH PAETS OF THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF 
THE BODY. 

Calling one of the children to her, the teacher pro- 
ceeds to touch the arm, asking at the same time. 
What part of the body am I touching ? [Taking hold 
of the wrist.] What part of the arm am I touching ? 
Touches the elbow and hand, making the same in- 
quiries successively. Touches a finger, thumb, knuckle, 
nail, joint, and successively asks, What part of the hand 
am I touching ? 

Next, call out another pupil, and request him to 
touch parts of the arm of the first pupil, and the class 



THE PEINCIPAL PARTS OF THE BODY. 193 

to tell the name of the part touched. As the pupil 
touches successively the hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder, 
the class may say " hand," " wrist," " elbow," " shoul- 
der," etc. 

Suppose the pupil should touch that part of the 
arm between the elbow and shoulder, and no one in 
the class could tell what the part is called, the teacher 
should tell them that it is the upper arm^ or the «rm, 
and that the part between the elbow and wrist is 
called the fore-arm. 

Second Exercise.— Next, the class may be called 
upon to point out the jDarts of the arms, while the 
teacher speaks the name ; as, left elbow; right elbow; 
left shoulder; right shoulder; left wrist; right wrist; 
left upper arm ; right fore-arm ; left hand ; right up- 
per arm; left fore-arm; right shoulder; left elbow; 
right wrist; left shoulder ; left thumb; right knuckles ; 
fingers of left hand, etc., etc. Should mistakes be 
made by the pupils, let the class decide what is right, 
and make the correction. 

The teacher may now point to the difierent jDarts 
of the arm, while the children repeat the name — left 
elbow; right shoulder; upper arm; wrist, etc. In 
this manner all parts of the arm and hand should be 
pointed at and named. 

Third Exercise.— The exercise may be varied by 
counting the joints of the arms, and telling how many 
ways each joint will bend ; then by counting the fin- 
gers and the joints of the fingers. 
I 



19-i DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

Questions on the use of each part of the arm and 
hand may follow. Beginning with the shoulder, show 
that it is a universal joint — one that will bend in every 
direction. 

Call a child, and hold its arm so that it can not 
move it at the shoulder, and then let the child see 
how few motions could be made with the arm with- 
out that joint. Let him try to touch the top of his 
head without moving the shoulder-joint. 

The movements of the other joints of the arm, and 
hands, and legs should be pointed out, and illustrated 
by similar exj)eriments. 

The teacher can add a great variety to these lessons 
by such movements as those already given will sug- 
gest to her. If rightly introduced, they will lead to 
a knowledge of the names and uses of the different 
parts of the body ; also, to the utility of the various 
joints, and to an acknowledgment of the wisdom of 
God in so admkably fitting each part for its particu- 
lar use. 



LESSON IV. 

THE LIMBS. 

The upper part of the body is called the head; the 
largest part of the body is called the trunk; and the 
arms and legs are called the limbs. Now tell me 
which are the three principal parts of the body. "The 
head, the trunk, and the limbs." We will now talk 
about the limhs. 



THE LIMBS. 195 

How many arms have you? How many legs? 
What are the arms and legs called ? " Limbs.'''' How 
many limbs have you ? " Four." What are your 
upper limbs called? What are your lower limbs 
called? How many legs have you? How many 
legs has the dog ? the cat ? the horse ? the cow ? 

What other animals have four legs ? How many 
legs have these animals more than we have ? What 
limbs have we ? " Two legs and two arms." How 
many limbs have the animals which we have men- 
tioned ? What are their limbs ? What is the differ- 
ence between the limbs of these animals and our 
Hmbs ? Yes ; they have two legs where we have 
two arms. What do you call those legs which they 
have in the place of our arms ? " Fore legs." What 
do you call the other pair ? " Hind legs." 

Can you tell me some other animals, besides men, 
that have only two legs ? What have birds in place 
of arms ? Can birds do any thing with their wings 
which they could not do if they had only legs ? 

There are some animals that move without either 
legs, or arms, or wings ; can you tell me what these 
are ? " Snakes — worms — fish." 

"How can snakes crawl without legs?"* This is 
not an easy question to answer so that children can 
understand it ; you will know better how it is when 
you are older; but I will try to tell you. Snakes 

* This question is supposed to come from the pupils, and on 
that account we answer it. But it would be well for the teacher 
to avoid asking such questions as would require in their answers 
a knowledge of other terms than the pupils already understand. 



196 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

have scales on tlieir bodies, and they can move each 
scale a Httle, so that by crawling v.Ith a crooked or 
winding motion they are able to push themselves 
along quite rapidly. 

Where do fish live ? How do they move ? What 
have fish in place of limbs ? 

You have now told me some of the animals that 
have two legs, and some that have four legs, and 
some that have no legs ; can you tell me any thing 
that has more than four legs ? " Yes, the fly and the 
bee." 

How many legs has a fly or a bee ? Let us look at 
a fly and see. Here is one. It has three legs on 
each side, or six legs in all. Can you tell me of any 
others that have six legs ? "A butterfly." Yes, 
and the wasp, the beetle, and ant each has six legs. 
These animals we call insects. How many legs have 
insects ? " Insects have six legs." 



LESSON V. 

THE JOINTS. 

We have been talking about the legs of animals; 
now can you tell me what these animals do with their 
legs ? " They walk with them." That is true ; but 
do they keep their legs straight all the time ? "They 
bend them." In how many places can we bend our 
legs ? Try it, and find out. At the knee, one ; at the 
hip, one ; and at the ankle, one. " In three places." 



THE JOINTS. 197 

In how many places can you bend your arms ? At 
the shoulder, one ; at the elbow, one ; and at the 
wrist, one. " In three places." Can you bend your 
arm in more places than you can your leg ? 

Now look at your fingers, and teU me in how many 
places you can bend each. In how many places can 
you bend your thumb ? 

The place where we bend our limbs is called a joint. 
What do we call the place where we bend our limbs ? 
What can we do at a joint? Could you walk if you 
had no joints in your legs ? 

What could you do with your arms and fingers if 
you had no joints in them? Here you can see the 
wisdom and goodness of God in giving us limbs Avith 
joints, so that we can use them. 

Where is the lowest joint of the leg? Move your 
leg and find out. " At the ankle." It is called the 
ankle-joint. How many ankle-joints have you? 

Which is the highest place at which you can move 
your leg ? " At the hip." It is called the hip-joint. 
How many hip-joints have you? 

Where is the middle joint of the leg ? How many 
knee-joints have you? 

Now tell me all the joints of the legs. "Two an- 
kle-joints, two knee-joints, and two hip-joints." How 
many joints have you altogether in your legs? When 
do you use your legs without bending any joint in 
them? When do you bend your hip and knee-joint 
only ? " When sitting." When do you bend all 
three joints of the leg ? " When walking." 

How many joints are there in one arm? How 



198 DEYELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

many in both arms ? Wliicli is the lowest joint of the 
arm? "At the wrist." Which is the uppermost 
joint of the arm ? " The shoulder-joint." Which is 
the middle-joint ? " The elbow." 

Now I wish you to use all of these joints when you 
go home, and then tell me all about them to-morrow. 
I want you to tell me how many ways each joint will 
bend. 



LESSON YI. 

PAETS OF THE LOIBS. 

What parts of the body do we call the limhs? 
Where are your arms ? "At the upper part of the 
body, on each side of the trunk." What do we call 
that part of the arm between the shoulder and the 
elbow ? " The upper arm^ or the arrar 

What do we call the part between the elbow and 
the wrist ? " The fore-arm^'' Point to the upper 
arm — to \hQ fore-arm. 

Where is ih^ fore-arm? Tell me where the iipper 
arm is. What is above the upper arm f " The shoul- 
der." What is below the lorist f 

You have now learned how many parts there are 
in your arms ; now let us ascertain how many parts 
the lower limbs have. " Two parts." 

What do we call that part between the hip and the 
knee ? " The thigh." How many thighs have you ? 
Where are the thighs ? " Between the hij) and knee." 

What is that part between the knee and ankle call- 



THE FEET. 199 

ed ? " The leg." The bone in front is called the shin- 
hone; the fleshy part at the back of the leg is called 
the calf. What is between the knee and the ankle ? 
" The shin and the calf.^'' In what part of the lower 
limbs are the shins f In what part is the calf? 



LESSON^ VII. 

THE FEET. 

Upon what do you stand ? What is the shape of 
your feet ? " Long, flat, and wide." 

Suppose your feet were narrow, short, and round, 
do you think you could stand on them as well as you 
do now? Where are your feet? "At the lower 
part of the body, at the end of the legs." For what 
do you use your feet ? How many feet have you ? 

Now tell me what are the difierent parts of the 
foot. " The toes, the heel." How many toes have 
you on one foot ? How many on both ? What can 
you do with your toes ? When do you bend your 
toes ? What do you call the places where you bend 
your toes ? 

What have your toes besides joints? Have you 
nails on any other part of the body? Does it hurt 
you when you cut your nails ? What, then, may you 
say of your nails ? "They have no feeling." Where 
are your nails placed ? 

When you walk, what part of the foot is in most 
danger of striking against objects ? " The toes." 
Now can you tell why the nails, which have no feel- 



200 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY, 

ing, are placed at the end of the toes ? " To protect 
from injury that part which is in most danger." 

What is at the back j^art of the foot ? What i^art 
of the foot is attached to the leg ? On what part of 
the foot are the toes? "The toes are on the front 
part of the foot." Where is the heel ? 

There are some other parts of the foot which you 
have not mentioned. The upper part of it, between 
the leg and the toes, is called the instep. Where is 
the instep? "The instep is the upper j^art of the 
foot, between the toes and the ankle. It rises up 
from the toes to the ankle." 

The bottom part of the foot, back of the toes, is 
called the sole. Where are the soles of the feet?* 
" Under the feet, behind the toes." 

You have told me the principal parts of your feet ; 
now will you tell me what you can do with them? 
" Walk — run — jump — ho23." 

What is the difference between running and walk- 
ing ? Let me see one of you walk ; now let me see 
you run. How did you move your feet when run- 
ning ? " Fast." How did you move your feet when 
walking ? " Slow." Now can you tell me the differ- 
ence between walking and running ? 

What do you do with your feet when you jump ? 
What do you do when you hop ? What do naughty 
boys sometimes do with their feet ? 

* It has doubtless been frequently observed, during these les- 
sons, that as soon as the child is in possession of a clear idea, he is 
required to give it utterance, that he may acquire the habit of easy 
expression of his thoughts. 



FEET OF ANIMALS. 201 

LESSON yiii. 

THE FEET OF AISTIMALS. 

In our last lesson we talked about the different 
parts of your feet ; we will now talk about the differ- 
ent kinds of feet which animals have. 

How many feet have birds? What do hens do 
with their feet ? Yes, they scratch up the earth with 
their long claws. How do birds use their claws when 
they sleep ? I will tell you. The claws of birds are so 
formed that, when sitting down, they shut up tightly. 
When the bird ahghts on a limb of a tree, and sits 
down, his claws cling tightly to the limb ; so, when 
they sit down to sleep, there is no danger of falling off. 

The bird can not fly from the limb until it first 
stands up, so that its toes will loosen their hold. 
When the bird sits down, it bends the legs, and the 
bending makes the cords of the legs puU the toes so 
that they grasp the roost very tightly. 

Taking hold of the cord of a chicken's leg above the 
middle joint, and bending the leg, will show how the 
cords pull the toes shut. 

Are the feet of all birds alike ? In what respect 
are the feet of ducks and geese different from those 
of a hen ? " They have a skin stretched between the 
claws." Yes ; this kind of foot is called a web-foot. 

" Why do ducks and geese have such feet ?" That 
they may swim in the water. When the birds with 
web-feet swim, they use their feet for oars to push 
12 



"202 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

backward against the water, and that makes them 
move forward. Now, when they move their feet for- 
ward, the toes shut np together, so as not to pull 
against the water. When they push back their legs, 
the feet spread out again,* forming a fan-shaped oar to 
push against the water. This is the way that ducks 
and geese swim. 

Do hens swim? Why not? Their feet are not 
webbed, so they can not use them for oars to push 
themselves along in the water. 

The Foot of a Cat.— What kind of feet have cats 
and dogs? Are the claws of the cat and the dog 
alike ? " The cat has very sharj) claws ; the dog's 
claws are not sharj^." 

There is something very interesting about the foot 
of a cat. If you will take one in your hands, when 
your cat is asleep in your lap, you will find it very 
soft, and the sharj) claws covered up. Her feet seem 
like cushions. 

Now why do you suppose God gave her such feet ? 
Let us see what the cat does, and perhaj^s we may 
then understand why she has such soft feet. 

When a dog or a sheep walks on a floor, you can 
hear their steps; but you do not hear the cat walk, 
because her soft, cushioned feet touch the floor so 
quietly. Cats, you know, catch rats and mic6. Now, 
suppose the feet of a cat were like those of a sheep, 
could she creep near the rat without being heard? 
Now can you tell me why the cat has such soft feet ? 
Why has she such sharp claws ? 



THE HANDS. 203 

Animals with Hoofs. — What kind of feet have 
horses and cows? What is the difference between 
the hoof of a horse and that of a cow ? " One is part- 
ed in front, the other is whole." The hoof of a cow 
is called a cloven hoof. 

Tell me some other animals that have cloven hoofs. 
What do animals with hoofs eat ? How do they ob- 
tain the grass ? " They put their heads down to the 
grass and bite it off." Do they need claws to hold 
their food ? 

When you look at the feet of the different animals, 
and see how each kind has feet best fitted for its use, 
you can see how God shows his care for the animals, 
and gives them what is necessary. He also takes 
care of us. 



LESSON IX. 

THE HANDS. 

Look at your hand, and tell me some of its parts. 
" Thumb — fingers — joints — knuckles — nails." How 
many thumbs have you ? How many fingers have 
you? How many joints are there on one finger? 
How many on all the fingers of one hand ? 

What kind of substance is the nail? "Horny." 
Does it hurt you to cut the nail? Then what may be 
said of the nail ? " It has no feeling." 

Where are the nails placed ? Can you tell me any 
use of the nails ? " They protect the ends of the fin- 
gers." 



204 DEVELOPmG IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

What are the names of the different fingers? I 
will name them, and you may repeat them after me. 
The thumb, fore finger, middle finger, ring finger, lit- 
tle finger. You may repeat their names again. 

I will hold up a finger, and you may tell its name. 
Which hand do I hold up? "The right hand." 
Which hand is up now ? " The left hand." As I hold 
u]D a finger, you may teU me what particular finger it 
is, and of which hand. " Middle finger, left hand." 
" Fore finger, right hand." " Ring finger, right hand." 

Which is the longest finger ? Which the shortest ? 
What is the shape of the fingers ? 

The joints where your fingers unite with the hand 
are called JcnucMes. The upper part of the hand, be- 
tween the knuckles and the wrist, is called the hack 
of the hand. What can you do at your knuckles ? 
" Bend the fingers." 

Show me the inside of your hands. These are call- 
ed the x>alms of the hands. Where is the palm of the 
hand ? " The inside of the hand, between the fingers 
and the wrist." 

Where is the back of the hand ? " The upper part 
or outside of the hand, between the knuckles and the 
wrist." 

N'ow tell me things that you can do with your 
hands. " Rub — pull — lift — throw — push — strike — 
pinch — squeeze — pound — feel — mark — point," etc. 

Can you use your toes in the same way as you do 
your fingers ? " IN'o." This is because the toes are 
all placed in a row. In the hand the thumb can be 
brought opposite to the fingers, and thus the hand \9. 



THE HEAD. 205 

well fitted to take hold of things. The hand is made 
to take hold^ but the foot is made to support the body 
when standing or walking. For what do women use 
their hands ? For what do men use their hands ?* 

Are there any animals that have hands ? " Mon- 
keys." They live in trees. Can you tell me any use 
for their hands ? " They use them to lay hold of the 
branches." Thus you see that they also are well fit- 
ted for their mode of life. 



LESSON X. 

THE HEAD. 

What was our last lesson about? "The hand." 
Tell me the parts of the hand. Tell me the parts of 
the arm. Tell me the parts of the foot — of the leg. 

You have now told me about your hands, and feet, 
and limbs, and next we will talk about the head^ the 
highest part of the body. One of you may stand here 
before the class. 

Now each pupil may tell me some part of the head 
which you can see. "Face — hair — ears — crown — 
forehead — temples." Very well; now tell me parts 
of the face. "Eyes — nose — mouth — cliin — cheeks — 
lips — eyebrows." 

Where is the face ? " In front of the head." Where 
are the ears ? " At each side of the head." Where 

* Here the teacher may talk about the different occupations of 
men and women, if the pupils are old enough to understand it. 



206 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

is the crown ? " On the top of the head." Where is 
the forehead ? " Above the nose and eyes." Where 
are the temples ? " At the sides of the head, between 
the eyes and ears."* 

Where are the eyes ? " Between the temples, be- 
low the forehead, above the cheeks, on each side of 
the nose." 

Where is the nose ? " In the middle of the face, 
below the forehead, above the mouth, between the 
eyes and cheeks." 

Where is the mouth ? " Below the nose, above 
the chin, and between the cheeks." 

Where is the chin ? " Below the mouth, and be- 
tween the lower part of the cheeks." 

Where are the cheeks ? " Below the eyes and the 
temples, between the ears and the sides of the nose, 
mouth, and chin." 

Where are the lips? Where are the eyebrows? 
" Above the eyes and below the forehead." 

* It is not expected that the pupils will give their answers in 
the same language as those here ; but, when necessary, their de- 
scriptions should be corrected by the teacher, and simple and ac- 
curate expressions given them, and these they should be required 
to repeat together and singly. In this manner these exercises 
may be made to cultivate ready and precise observation and cor- 
rect expression. 

In conducting these exercises, the pupils who think they can 
answer should raise their hands, but none should speak except 
those whom the teacher requests to answer. 



THE EYES. 207 

LESSON XI. 

THE EYES. 

How many eyes have you ? What are your eyes 
for ? What do you call this eye ? " The right eye." 
And this ? " The left eye." 

Now look at the eyes of the child next to you, and 
tell me what you see. Look at the middle of the eye. 
" I see a small round black spot." 

See if the spot is the same in other eyes. This spot 
is called the 2n(pil. It looks black, because the inside 
of the eye, into which we look, through it, is dark. It 
is through this opening that the light enters the eye 
and enables it to see. 

What do you observe around the picpil? "A col- 
ored ring." Look and tell me if this ring is of the 
same color in every eye. " No ; in some it is blue, in 
some black, in some gray, and in some brown." 

When it is blue, what would you say of the eyes ? 
"They are blue eyes." Yes; and when quite dark, 
we say the person has black eyes. 

This colored ring around the pupil is called the iris. 

Now look at each other's eyes again, and tell me 
what you observe outside of the iris. " Something 
that looks like a white ball." That is called the eyeball. 

How many eyeballs have you ? What have you on 
your eyeball? ^^The picp)il and the ^m." On what 
part of the eyeball is the 2nqnlf " On the front part, 
in the middle ; the iris is around it." 



208 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

Now I wish you to examine the position of the eye 
in the head, and tell me what you observe. "It is 
placed in a hole in the head." 

That hole is called a socket. Now tell me once 
more how the eye is placed. " It is placed in a sock- 
et., with bones all around except in front." 

Now observe how the forehead juts over the eyes, 
and how the nose rises between them, and how the 
cheek-bones protect them from injury. If some one 
should strike you over the eyes, you see how admira- 
bly they would be protected from severe injury. 

Can you tell me what covers the eye ? " The eye- 
lidP How many eyelids have you to one eye ? What 
do you call the eyeUd nearest to your forehead? 
"What the one under the eye? Which eyelid am I 
touching ? " The upper eyeUd of the right eye." 

What is in the edge of the eyelids ? What do you 
call the hairs at the edge of your eyelids ? Are there 
any other hairs near your eyelids ? What are they 
called ? Where are your eyebrows ? 

Of what use are the eyebrows ? " For good looks." 
Well, that may be one of the uses, but it is not the 
most important one. You have sometimes persj^ired 
so that the water would drop from your forehead; 
now can you tell me where the water drops off? " At 
the end of the eyebrows, on each side of the face." 

You have seen an eave-trough in which the water 
is carried along the eaves to the corner of the house, 
and there poured down in one stream. Well, the eye- 
brows are the eaves to the forehead, and they prevent 
the perspiration from running down into the eye. 



THE EYES AND SENSE OF SIGHT. 209 

The eyelashes also are a protection to it, besides 
making it look well. There are a great many small 
particles of dust flying about in the air, and the eye- 
lashes, by winking, keep these from going into the eye. 

There are a great many more interesting things 
which I might tell you about the eye, but we will 
leave them for another lesson. 



LESSON XII. 

THE EYES AND SENSE OF SIGHT. 

What can you tell me about your eye? "It has a 
pupil in the front, and an iris around it. The eyeball 
is round and white." What is the use of the pupil ? 
" To let the light into the eye, so that we can see." 

Did you ever look at the pupil of a cat's eye in the 
night ? You must have found the opening very large ; 
but if you would look at it in a bright daylight, it 
would be very narrow, almost like a line. The cat 
has need to see at night to enable it to catch mice and 
rats. So God has provided its eyes with pupils that 
will open very wide, to let in enough light for it to see 
when it is dark to us. 

ISTow let us talk about the protections for the eye. 
What is above them? "The forehead." What is 
on the sides ? " The temples and the nose." What 
is below to protect them? " The cheek-bones." How 
do these bones protect the eye ? How do the eye- 
brows afford them protection ? 



210 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

What do you do when any thing comes near the 
eye ? Observe what you do when I put my hand 
quickly near your eyes. " Close the eyes." Yes, you 
close your eyelids before you have time to think that 
your eye is in danger of being hurt. 

What keeps the dust that is floating in the air from 
your eyes ? " The eyelashes." Yes, the fringe of 
your eyelashes brushes away the dust that comes near 
your eyes. 

But does not the dust sometimes get into your 
eyes, notwithstanding your eyelashes try to brush it 
away? What immediately happens to your eyes 
when dust gets in them? "The tears flow." Yes, 
and the tears carry the dust out of the eye — they 
wash it clean. 

Do the tears ever flow when there is no dust in the 
eyes? "Yes, when we cry." Why do peo^^le cry? 
"Sometimes because they are hurt, sometimes be- 
cause they are sorry." 

Let me tell you something more about tears. 
They flow into the eye all the time and keep it moist, 
so that the eyelids will move easily. Perhaps you 
wonder where the tears go to when you are not cry- 
ing. Look at each other's eyeUds, at the end of the 
edge toward the nose ; can you see a small hole there ? 
" Yes." The tears which go to the eyes to keej) them 
moist and to wash them run into these little holes, 
which are called ducts^ and pass down into the nose. 
But sometimes the tears flow so fast that these holes 
or ducts can not take them all in ; then they run over 
the lids and down the cheeks. 



THE EYES AND SENSE OF SIGHT. 211 

The next time that you cry, just think about the 
tears, and see if they do not run out of your nose as 
well as down the cheeks. 

Seeing. — Wliat is the chief use of your eyes ? 

Now I wish you also to think of the shape of the eye 
— round — how admirably fitted to turn easily about, 
so that we can see in various directions. 

What do you say of people who can not see? 
"They are blind." Can you see at all times? " We 
can not see in the dark." What, then, is necessary 
to enable us to see ? Where does light come from ? 
When do we lose the light of the sun ? What some- 
times gives us light during the night ? How can you 
see when there is neither the light of the sun nor of 
the moon ? " By the light of a candle or lamp, or 
from burning gas." 

There are a great many more curious and interest- 
ing things which might be said about the eye, and I 
hope you will think about all I have told you of its 
shape and use, and what great care God has taken to 
guard it from accidents ; and when you are a little 
older you may read about the wonders of the eye, 
and learn a great many more curious things concern- 
ing it. 

Note. — The teacher will find the subject of the eye and seeing, 
of the ear and hearing, and of smell, taste, and touch, explained 
in a familiar and interesting manner in Part II. of the " Child's 
Book of Nature," by Dr. Hooker. 



212 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

lesso:nt XIII. 

THE EAES AISTD THE SENSE OF HEAETNG. 

How do you know that I am in tHs room ? " We 
can see yon." Shut your eyes; now how do you 
know that I am in the room? You do not see me. 
" We can hear you." Very good ; can you tell me 
what you hear with ? " Our ears." Where are your 
ears placed ? " On the two sides of the head." How 
many ears liave you ? 

One of the boys may come and stand here, so that 
all can see his ears. Xow look at him, and tell me 
the parts of the ear. That lower, soft part, into which 
ear-rings are sometimes put, is caUed the Jfcq). Where 
is the flap of the ear ? " The lowest part of the ear." 

You observe how the edge curls over the ear ; that 
is called the hein — sometimes the " rim of the ear." 

The opening or passage leads to the d)ni7n of the 
ear. This part you can not see ; it is placed in the 
head, and it is called so because it is something Hke 
a drum. When you hear sounds, the vibrations of 
the air go into the ear, and strike against this little 
drum in the ear ; this is what makes sound. When I 
ring the bell it shakes the air, and the motion of the 
air comes to the ear-drum, and you hear its sound. 

The ear is very deUcate, and the entrance to it is 
well guarded. The passage leading to the drum of 
the ear is always open, and you know that flies and 
bugs could easily crawl in. But they seldom do. 



THE EAKS AND THE SENSE OF HEARING. 213 

God has taken care to prevent this annoyance. There 
is in the ear a sticky substance that we call wax, 
which is so bitter and unpleasant that insects avoid 
it. Besides, the wax would stick his legs so that he 
could not crawl far, nor make a noise with his wings. 

Hearing. — But I want you to tell me something 
about the shape of ears. "They are hollow on the 
side of the opening which leads to the ear-drum.'''' 
This is the best shape for collecting the sound and 
bringing it to the passage of the ear. 

Did you ever see a rabbit when the dogs were 
chasing it? What was the direction of its ears? 
"They turned backward." This was to enable it to 
collect the sounds that came from its pursuer. Ani- 
mals that are pursued by others have their ears stand- 
ing backward, that they may hear what is coming 
from behind. 

Now look at the ears of the cat, and tell me how 
they stand. "The ears of the cat point forward." 
This is so that she may readily catch the sound of the 
game for which she is in pursuit. 

Which has the larger ears, the cat or the rabbit ? 
" The rabbit." 

The rabbit is a very timid animal, and never stops 
to fight when attacked, but always tries to run away. 
Hence it is very important for it to have large ears, 
that it may catch the slightest sound, and be warned 
of danger before it comes near. Did you ever see 
the rabbit moving about its ears while eating ? That 
was to listen for sounds from different directions. 



214: DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

What do you say of a person who can not hear ? 
"He is deaf." 

Are all sounds pleasant? Tell me some that are 
not pleasant. Name some that are pleasant. Some- 
times you are told not to make a noise. Is a noise 
pleasant? That is why it is called a noise, because 
the sound is not agreeable to the ear. Is the song of 
a bird a noise ? Why not ? " Because it is pleas- 
ant." 

Children should always try to remember that a 
noise is not pleasant to grown people. 



LESSON xiy. 

THE NOSE AND SE:NSE OF SMELLING. 

What is in the middle of your face, above your 
mouth, and below your forehead ? What is on each 
side of your nose ? 

Tell me some of the parts of the nose. " The holes 
in the end." Those holes are called nostrils. They 
lead to a passage back of the mouth through which 
we breathe. 

There are also passages to the eyes. Can you tell 
me the use of these passages ? " They are to conduct 
the tears from the eyes." 

What other part of the nose do you observe? 
" Something between the nostrils." That is called 
the cartilage; it separates the nose into two parts. 
What other part do you observe ? " The end, and 



THE NOSE AND SENSE OF SMELLING. 215 

the liigli part outside." The end is called the tip ; the 
high part is called the bridge of the nose. Now you 
may repeat the names of all the parts of the nose. 
" Nostrils, cartilage, tip, bridge." 

Smelling. — Of what use is the nose ? Do you use 
your nose only in smelling ? Take hold of your nose, 
and press the nostrils together, and tell me how you 
feel. " I can not breathe easily." Then for what do 
you use your nose ? " For smelling and breathing." 

How do you know that there are objects in this 
room ? " We can see them." Suppose I should tie 
a handkerchief over your eyes so you could not see, 
would you be able to tell whether there are any ob- 
jects in the room? "We could feel them with our 
hands." Yes, you could learn it by feeling, when you 
could not see. 

Now how many ways are there by which you can 
tell what objects are in this room? " Two." What 
are those ways ? " Seeing and feeling." 

Suppose you should stand still where you could not 
touch any thing with your hands, and should close 
your eyes while I ring this bell, could you tell that 
there was a bell in the room ? " Yes." How could 
you tell ? " By hearing it." 

Now how many ways are there by which you can 
tell that objects are in the room? "Three." What 
are those ? " By seeing, feeling, and hearing." 

Once more close your eyes. What object have I 
held before each of you ? "A rose." Did you see 
it? "No," Didyoufeelit? "No." Did you hear 



216 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

it ? " No." Then how do you know that it was a 
rose ? " We could smell it." 

Now what other way have you learned by which 
to tell what is in the room ? " By smelling." How 
many ways in all ? " Four." What are those ? " See- 
ing, feeling, hearing, smelHng." 

Fes, these are four of the ways that God provided 
by which we can learn. We learn by seeing; we 
learn by feeling; we learn by hearing; we learn by 
smelling. We learn a great deal by all these ways, 
but we learn most by seeing and hearing. 

Some animals learn a great deal by smelling. Can 
you tell me the name of some of these animals ? " The 
dog and cat." Yes, dogs are very remarkable for 
their sharp smell. A dog that had lost his master 
has been known to follow his steps through the crowd- 
ed streets of a city by smelling. 

Can you tell me any other use that the dog makes 
of his sharp smell? "He follows his game by it." 

Some birds have a remarkable scent, and can dis- 
cover where there is any putrid flesh when they are a 
great distance up in the air. These birds are very 
useful in clearing away what would make the air very 
unhealthy. Can you tell me what these birds are 
called? 

What animal has a long nose, called a snout ? How 
does the pig use its snout ? What has the pig at the 
end of its snout ? That rim or ring of gristle helps it 
in rooting up the earth. 

Can you tell me what animal has a much longer 
snout than a pig ? What is this long snout called ? 



THE MOUTH. 217 

" A trunk." What can the elephant do with its 
trunk ? It can bend it about in every direction. 

The elephant feeds upon grass and green boughs 
of trees. Look at this picture of an elephant. Do 
you think he could put his mouth down to the ground 
to bite off the grass ? Now can you think of any use 
for this long snout ? " To pull up the grass, break off 
the small branches of trees, and carry them to its 
mouth." 

Yes, and it uses the trunk when it drinks. It 
draws up the water in its trunk, and pours it into its 
mouth. 

Now tell me what use you make of your nose. 
What uses do different animals make of their noses ? 

Smelling affords us great enjoyment, and God has 
made this world pleasant for us by scattering so 
many sweet-smelling flowers all over the earth. He 
has done much to make us happy, and we ought to 
love him for it. 



LESSON xy. 

THE MOUTH. 

Where is your mouth ? " Below my nose, above 
my chin, and below my cheeks." 

What do you call the edge of the mouth ? How 
many lips have you ? What do you call the lip near- 
est the nose ? What the other lip ? What do you 
do when you smile ? How do you use your lips to 
show that you love a person ? 

[TEOCK RESEMCH CEMTEa 

AUBURN UNIVERSITY 



218 DEVELOPING- IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

Tell me what you see in the mouth. " Teeth — 
tongue." What can you say of the teeth ? " They 
are white — hard — sharp." What is the use of their 
being so hard ? 

Are your teeth all alike ? What difference do you 
observe in your teeth? How many kinds of teeth 
have you? "Two — three." 

Let us examine. In the front of your jaws you 
have teeth with sharp edges ; how many on each 
jaw? "Four." How many on both? "Eight." 
These are the cutting teeth. 

On each side of the cutting teeth you will see some 
with a point at the centre. How many do you find 
of this kind? "Three on each side of the cutting 
teeth — twelve in all." These are for tearing the food; 
then what would you call them? "The tearing 
teeth." Yes, you may call them the tearing teeth, or 
the canine teeth. The two pointed teeth in the up- 
per jaw, next to the cutting teeth, are called eye-teeth. 

Now see what other teeth you have. How many 
on each side of your jaws? Those teeth at the back 
part of your jaw are called double teeth^ or grinders^ 
because we grind our food with them. 

Now how many kinds of teeth have you ? " Three." 
What is the use of each kind ? The cutting teeth are 
to cut up our food when we take it into the mouth, 
the tearing teeth are to tear it in pieces, and the grind- 
ers are to grind it up ready for swallowing. 

In what are your teeth set ? How many jaws have 
you ? Of what use are the jaws ? Which jaw do 
you move when you eat ? What covers the jaws ? 
What is that flesh called ? " Gums." 



THE MOUTH. 219 

What is in the middle of the mouth ? "When do 
you use your tongue ? " When talking and eating." 
Yes; when you eat you use your tongue to bring 
your food between your teeth, and to help you to 
swallow it. 

Speech. — ^NTow tell me when you open your mouth. 
" When we eat — drink — talk — laugh — sing — scream 
— whistle," etc. 

What part of the mouth do you use when you talk? 
Pronounce some words and see. "We open and shut 
the mouth when we speak." True ; but what do you 
do with your tongue and Hps when you speak ? 

Look at my mouth, and make the same sounds that 
I do.* A — e — i — — tc — d — b — h — k — I — m — ?i — 2^ — 
s—t. 

Now can you make these sounds by only opening 
and shutting the mouth ? Try it again, and see what 
more you do. What do you use besides your lips 
when you speak ? " Our tongues." 

When hungry, we open the mouth — to eat; when 
thirstyf — to drink/ when we have any thing to say, 
we open it — to speak ; when we are merry and feel 
happy, we open it — to laugh^ or sing^ or lohistle; when 
sleepy — to gape or yaion. 

* Here the teacher should give the sound of the letter, not 
speak its name. It may be made a very interesting and profitable 
lesson by teaching the pupils habits of observing how sounds are 
produced, while it cultivates the hearing. 

f The teacher may say, "When hungry we open the mouth"— 
waiting for the pupils to supply the ellipsis with the words in ital- 
ics, "When thirsty," etc. 



220 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

To whom has God given the power of talking? 
How should we use this power ? When do people 
make a bad use of it ? 

Do all animals make the same sound? Do the 
same animals always make the same sound ? When 
the dog or the cat is hurt, do they make the same 
sounds that they do when they are happy ? 

Taste. — The sense of taste should be explained to 
the children in connection with some of the lessons on 
the mouth. A few exjDeriments might be made in 
giving them pieces of sweet and sour apples, oranges, 
raisins, sugar, cinnamon, etc., to taste while their eyes 
were closed. 



LESSON XVI. 

THE SENSE OF TOUCH. 

The sense of touch may be agreeably and profita- 
bly brought into exercise by the parent as soon as 
the child can walk and talk. 

Remove the light from a room in which the child is 
familiar with the furniture, and lead it around while 
engaged in a cheerful conversation about finding the 
different objects in the room, and let it distinguish the 
chair, sofa, table, bureau, etc., by feeling them. This 
will give it pleasure, and the while teach another im- 
portant lesson unawares — that there is no terror or 
danger in darkness except in coming in contact with 
objects. 



THE SENSE OF TOUCH. 221 

The teacher may also introduce interesting experi- 
ments with the sense of touch. It may be quickened 
by placing the hands behind, and having various kinds 
of cloth, coin, and other articles placed in them, to 
be named from feeling. In all these exercises there 
should be fair play and no tricks. 

Lessons in distinguishing coins by touch alone 
would lead to the prevention of mistakes, in subse- 
quent years, in paying away gold for silver, and ena- 
ble one to distinguish most of the usual counterfeit 
coins. 

The touch may also be instructed in the systematic 
discovery of good and bad conductors of heat. In 
the same atmosphere, metal, earthenware, glass, or 
marble will feel colder than flannel or the carpet ; 
linen will seem colder than cotton. Substances con- 
duct heat with different degrees of rapidity, and when 
the hands feel one thing colder than another, it is be- 
cause the former absorbs heat from the hand more 
rapidly than the latter. Smooth marble seems colder 
than rough marble, from its presenting more surface 
at once to the skin. 

If a child places its right hand upon the cold hearth, 
and its left upon the carpet by the side of it, holding 
them there for a minute, then putting the palms of 
the hands flat together, the right hand will feel the 
left one to be warm, and the left one will feel the 
right to be cold. 

This shows how much more heat has been conduct- 
ed away from the skin of one hand than from the 
other ; yet a thermometer placed upon the hearth and 



222 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

upon tlie carpet would indicate no difference in their 
temperature. 

Again, substances may be warmer than the hands, 
and the difference in theu' conducting powers may be 
observed by touching the hot metal tea-pot and the 
handle of ivory or wood ; the metal, being a good or 
rapid conductor, feels hot, while the wood, being a 
poor or slow conducter, feels cool, or not uncomforta- 
bly warm. 

An interesting experiment with the sense of feeling 
may be performed in the folio wiog manner : 

Take three basins, and half fill them with cold water. 
Let the water in the first basin remain cold ; pour a 
small quantity of hot water into the second, just to 
make it comfortably warm ; add to the third basin as 
much hot water as the hand can bear. Having thus 
prepared the three basins, let one hand be held in the 
cold water, and the other in the hot water, for about 
a minute ; then place both hands in the tepid water, 
and it will feel cold to one hand and warm to the other. 

These experiments cultivate keen percej)tions of 
touch, while they amuse those engaged in them. 



LESSON XYII. 

THE TEETH OF ANIMALS. 

Here is a cat ; now let us see what kind of teeth it 
has. " They are long, sharp, tearing teeth." What 
does the cat eat ? Why, then, does it need sharp, 



THE TEETH OF ANIMALS. 223 

tearing teeth ? Lions and tigers have the same kind 
of teeth, to tear the flesh of other animals which they 
kill for food. 

Now do you remember what was said about the 
feet of the cat ? Look at them, and see how soft they 
are, and examine the claws. They are sharp, and fit- 
ted to catch and hold mice and rats. 

Have cows claws on their feet? Do they need 
them to catch their food ? What do cows eat ? What 
kind of teeth has the cow? She has no tearing teeth ; 
her food — the grass — does not need to be torn ; it 
needs grinding, and for this purjoose she has large 
grinding teeth to bruise up the grass till it becomes 
a soft pulp. 

Did you ever see a cow lying down and chewing ? 
How did she move her jaws ? " From side to side." 

Now you observe that the cat has teeth fitted for 
eating its food, and the cow teeth fitted for its food, 
and they both have teeth adapted to their modes of 
life. God gives to every animal the desire for the 
particular kind of food that is good for it ; also the 
means of procuring that food, and the proper teeth to 
chew it. 

Suppose you wanted to find out the kind of food 
that any animal eats, you might look in its mouth. 
If it feeds on grass and vegetables, what teeth would 
you find ? 

Suppose it lived chiefly on the flesh of other ani- 
mals, what would be the shape of its teeth ? 



224 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

LESSON XYIII. 

THE HAIE. 

What is on the top and back of your head ? Is 
the hair of all persons of the same color ? Has every- 
body the same number of fingers? Perhaps yon 
would Uke to ask why every body's hair is not alike, 
when they have hands and feet so nearly alike. 

Four fingers and one thumb are the best number 
that could be given us, but it is of Httle consequence 
what is the color of the hair. God made us alike 
where it was best that we should all be alike. 

Where do animals have hair ? What is the use of 
hair to animals ? Hair is their clothing. What can 
man do to supply the place of a covering of hair? 
" Make clothes." 

Do animals know how to make clothes ? If they 
knew how to sew, could they do it ? " They have no 
fiugers." 

Is the hair of all animals alike ? Tell me what ani- 
mals have different coverings. What has the cat? 
" Soft hair." What has the pig ? " Coarse, stiff" bris- 
tles." What do sheep have for a covering? What 
do men do with their wool ? 

Is the hair of all animals of the same color ? What 
is the color of the hair on the cow? What is the color 
of horses ? What is the color of cats ? Did you ever 
see a green cow, or a green horse, or a green cat ? 

What is the difference between the hair of a horse 
and the hair of a dog ? Is the hair of all dogs alike? 



THE BONES. 225 

LESSON XIX. 

THE BONES. 

The bones are the frame-work and support of the 
body. In this lesson we will talk about them, and try 
to learn their names. 

You can feel the bones in your fingers and arms. 
If you will j)ass your hand up the arm to the shoul- 
der, you will find it connected with a flat bone which 
extends partly across the back. This flat bone is 
called the shoulder-blade. How many shoulder-blades 
have you ? 

By passing your hand from the neck to- the shoul- 
der, you will feel the collar-hone. How many collar- 
bones have you ? The bone that you can feel just be- 
low the neck is the hreast-hone. What is the bone 
just below your neck called ? 

Can you feel any bones on each side of your body ? 
Those are called the ribs. What is the shape of the 
ribs ? "That of a curved They form a hollow place 
for your stomach., into which you receive your food. 
The lungs^ with which you breathe, and your hearty 
are also in this barrel-shaped cavity. 

Pass your hand along the middle of your back, and 
tell me what you feel. That is called the back-bone. 
Where is your back-bone ? Can you bend the back- 
bone? 

How is the back-bone formed ? It is formed of a 
great number of small bones most beautifully joined 
K2 



226 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

together. If it were formed of one bone, like tliis 
stick, could you bend your back ? Can you now bend 
your back easily? Let me see you make a bow. 
Did you bend your backs then ? 

Xow one of you may stand up against the wall so 
that your back can not bend, and then make a bow. 
What do you think of such a bow ? Is it not very 
awkward ? 

In what direction is the back-bone when we stand 
erect? "Perpendicular." In what direction is it 
when we He down ? " Horizontal." In what direc- 
tion is the back-bone of most animals ? 

The skull and the jaic-ho7ies belong to the head. 
Now let us repeat the names of these bones. You 
•may speak their names as I point them out. 

The principal bones of the body are the skull — 
ih.Q jaw-bones — the breast-hone — the shoulder-blades — 
the collar-bones — the ribs — the back-bone — the bones 
of the hands^ arms^ thigh^ legs, Viud feet. 



LESSOI:^ XX, 

THE BLOOD. 

Can you tell me what flows from your finger when 
you cut it, and from your nose when you give it a 
hard bump ? " Blood." What is the color of blood ? 
What do we call the little tubes in which the blood 
flows ? 

Listen to me, and I will tell you about the blood. 



THE BLOOD. 227 

and the journey it makes. The food which we eat is 
turned into blood and carried into the heart. The 
heart sends the pure blood, through the arteries, to all 
parts of the body. It carries out nourishment, from 
which the body grows. In returning through the veins 
to the heart it gathers up and takes back impurities. 
This blood is then sent through the lungs, where it is 
made pure by the air in breathing, and is again return- 
ed to the heart to be sent out through every part of the 
body as before, giving it nourishment and strength. 
While we live it regularly flows on, without our 
thinking or troubling ourselves about it. When it 
stops flowing we die. 

Did you ever observe a watery liquid in a plant 
that you had cut? That liquid is called sa]?^ and it 
flows through the plant, and gives it nourishment very 
much as the blood gives nourishment to the body. 

Now who will tell me something about the blood ? 
" It comes from the food we eat ; the heart sends it 
through all parts of the body." Can some other pupil 
tell any thing more about it ? " It brings back un- 
purities ; is sent to the lungs to be made pure by air." 
Who will add more? "From the lungs it flows back 
to the heart, and is sent out through the body again." 
Very well. 

I can not explain to you how all the bones, and 
flesh, and every part of the body is made from the 
blood. Wise men have studied this a great deal, and 
yet they do not know how it is done. But God has 
so formed us that all this takes place without our as- 
sistance. 



228 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

A very good man, of whom we read in the Bible, 
said, " I will praise God, for I am fearfully and won- 
derfully made." God made us, and therefore we 
ought to praise him. He also takes care of us every 
day we live. If he should cease to take care of us 
we should die. Do you wish God to take care of 
you? What would you say if you desired one to do 
something for you? "I would ask him to do it." 
What ought you to do when he had done it for you ? 
"Thank him for it." 

What, then, should you say to God for taking care 
of you yesterday and to-day, and that he may take 
care of you to-night and to-morrow ? "I should thank 
him for taking care of me yesterday, and ask him to 
take care of me to-day, to-night, and to-morrow." 
In his Word, the Bible, he has promised to hear us 
when we tell him our desires. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 



It is the body as well as the mind which we edu- 
cate, and we should not attempt to train the one to 
the neglect of the other ; both should be guided in 
uniform action, and trained to equal development. 
Few parents are aware of the great extent to which 
the seeds of disease are sown in our schools, simply 
from neglecting the physical condition of the chil- 
dren, and the proper adaptation of the school-room to 
the purposes for which it is used. 

Were suitable physical exercises made an essential 
and indispensable part of education for both sexes, 
many diseases which are the consequences of neglect- 
ed bodily development or of constitutional debility 
might be prevented, and, at the same time, the mental 
faculties be more fully developed. 

It is now customary, in our best primary schools, 
to introduce singing, marching, and various evolu- 
tions, such as clapping hands, standing and sitting 
alternately, folding arms, etc. These exercises are 
found to be of great utility, yet they do not bring 
sufficiently into action the various parts of the body 
to answer the ends of more distinct physical exercises. 
Nevertheless, they indicate that the importance of 



230 



PHYSICAL TRAINING, 



attention to tlie physical education of children is gen- 
erally acknowledged, and would be better attended 
to were the teachers provided with more specific di- 
rections for introducing suitable exercises without the 
trouble and expense of apparatus. 

SCHOOL EXERCISES, WITH ILLUSTRA- 
TIOI^S AND DESCRIPTIONS. 

HEAD MOVEMENTS. 

The position during these movements should be 
standing, with heels together and toes turned outward. 
No. 1. Head rotating ; 3 times 
from right to left, and 3 times from 
left to right. 

No. 2. Head sidewise turning ; 5 
times each way. 

No. 3. Head hacJcicard and for- 
ward bending ; 5 times each way. 
These head movements should be 
performed slowly at first. They are useful as a rem- 
edy against vertigo and giddiness, headache, etc. 





SHOULDER MOVEMENTS. 

No. 4. Shoidder raising ; 3 times left shoul- 
der, 3 times right, and 3 times both together. 
Raise the shoulders with force as high as pos- 
sible, but lower them gently, to prevent too 
great jarring of the head. If any pupil has 
one shoulder lower than the other, this move- 
ment should be performed only with the de- 
fective shoulder. 



ARM MOVEMENTS. 



231 



"No. 5. Shoulders forward and backward bending ; 
5 times each way. 



AEM MOVEMENTS. 



Position — Standing upright, heels together, toes 
outward, and shoulders thrown back. 



'7? ^ -■• 





No. 6. Arms sidewise raising ; 5 times slowly. 
Carry the arms, without bending, from the sides to a 
perpendicular position over the shoulders, and down 
again slowly. This exercise greatly aids respiration. 

No. T. Arms sidewise swinging ; 5 to 10 times 
each way, rapidly. 





No. 8. Arms 



; extend the arms horizon- 



232 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 



tally, and twist them forward and backward 10 times 
each way. 

No. 9. Arms sicinging together; carry the arms 
horizontally slowly outward sidewise, and bring them 
together forward with force 5 to 10 times. 





No. 10. Arms swinging apart; place the arms to- 
gether horizontally in front, and swing them back- 
ward with force 5 to 10 times. 

No. 11. Arms simnging forvmrd and haekioard^ 
without bending the elbows, 5 times each way. As 
the arms are thrown backward, the shoulders should 
incline forward, as in the cut. 

No. 12. Arms downioard stretch- 
ing ; 5 times. Count one as the 
hands are drawn up, and two as 
they are stretched downward. 

No. 13. Arms upiaard stretch- 
ing ; 5 times with force. As the 
arms are brought downward, the 
hands may strike the breast near 
the shoulder. Count one as the 
hands are drawn up to the breast, two as they are 




HAND MOVEMENTS. 



233 



stretched upwa^rd, three as they are brought down 
upon the breast again, w^^four as they are returned 
to the side. 






N"o. 14. Arms sidewise stretching j 5 times. Count 
07ie as the arms are brought to the breast ; tv^o^ stretch 
outward ; three^ back to the breast ; four^ at the side 
again. 

N'o. 15. Arms hachward stretching ; 5 times with 
force. Count one as the arms are drawn up, and tivo 
as they are stretched backward. 

No. 16. Armsforward stretching; 5 times. Count- 
ing as before. 

ISTo. lY. Arm-stretchi7ig comhined; upward, one^ 
two^ three (leaving arms at the breast) ; sidewise, one^ 
two^ three; forward, one, two, three; backward, one, 
two, three; downward, /bwr. 

These arm movements facilitate the circulation of 
the blood, give free action to the joints of the arm^, 
promote expansion of the chest, and aid respiration. 



HAND MOVEMEISTTS. 

No. 18. Hands open and shut with force ; 10 times, 
spreading the fingers as the hand opens. 



234 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 




18. 19. 20. 

N'o. 19. Hands describe figure oo ; 5 times with 
hands closed, and 5 times with hands open. Good 
exercise for the wrist and muscles of the arm. 

Xo. 20. Hands together^ palms ruhbing ; draw the 
hands the entire length of each other alternately, 
without bending the elbows, 5 times each hand. An 
excellent exercise for the shoulders. 



TEUIN^K. MOVEMENTS . 

Position — Heels apart, toes outward, shoulders back. 





21. 22, 23. 

No. 21. TrimJc fonoard and backward bending ; 
hands on hips; bend the trunk forward and backward, 
as if the hips were the hinge, 5 times each way, slow- 
ly. The tendency of this movement is to strengthen 



TRUNK MOVEMENTS. 



235 



the lower muscles of the back and abdomen, and to 
relieve constipation. 

No. 22. Trunk sideicise bending ; 5 times to the 
right and 5 times to the left. The hands may be 
placed on the hips, as in the cut, or clasped above the 
head, or extended sidewise. 

No. 23. Trunk tioisting ; hands on hips ; turn as far 
as possible to the right, also to the left, without mov- 
ing the feet, 5 times each way. To vary the move- 
ment, clasp the hands over the head, or extend them 
sidewise, and twist the body without moving the feet. 






24. 25. 26. 

No. 24. Trunk rotating ; hands on hips; bend the 
body toward the right, backward, left, and forward, 
5 times ; then 5 times round toward the left, back- 
ward, right, and forward. 

No. 25. Trunk hackioar d bending ; place the hands 
firmly at the small of the back ; then bend backward 
slowly as far as possible 5 times. As the body bends 
backward, the head will incline slightly forward. 

No. 26. Trunk stretching ; extend the arms above 
the head, rise upon the toes, and stretch upward as 
far as possible 5 times, inflating the lungs while ris- 



236 



PHYSICAL TEAim^'G. 



ing, and expelling the air while settling clown upon 
the heels. Stretch in the same manner (for a change 
in the movement), resting on one foot forward, as if in 
walking, while the other foot rests lightly upon the toe. 



CHEST EXERCISES. 

No. 27. Chest expansion j inflate the lungs, and 
beat the chest rapidly with the hands while holding 
the breath. Continue this for 10, 20, or 30 seconds 
at a time. Proceed gently until the pupils are accus- 
tomed to the movement. For a change in this exer- 
cise, take full and deep inspirations, and allow the air 
to pass slowly out while beating the chest. 

No. 28. Half chest exercise ; j^lace one 
hand under the arm, tightly against the ribs, 
the other on the head; bend the body side- 
wise as far as possible toward the hand against 
the side, and take 5 deep breaths, then change 
hands and repeat the same with the other 
^ side. Let the breathing be as deejD and com- 
28. plete as possible, but gentle and regular. 





ElI^^EE MOVEMENTS. 

No. 29. Knee-hending or courtesy- 
ing ; place heels together, hands on 
hips, and let the body sink down 
slowly, as low as possible, the trunk 
maintaining an upright j^osition ; then 
rise on the toes to the utmost height 
5 times. 

No. 30. Knee foTioard bending ; 



KNEE MOVEMENTS. 237 

place one foot a long step forward, as in pacing, with 
toes turned outward; hands on hips; bend the for- 
ward knee, raising and lowering the body, while the 
other knee is kept straight, 5 times. Change posi- 
tion, and repeat the same with the other knee 5 times. 
These movements are excellent for the lower ex- 
tremities, rendering the joints free and the muscles 
stronger. 

In arranging the foregoing list of school exercises, 
our aim has been to give such a variety of motions as 
could be introduced into any school-room without ap- 
paratus, and, at the same time, such as would bring 
into action all parts of the body, and most thoroughly 
the trunk, arms, and upper portions of it. We deem 
it less necessary to give extended exercises for the 
legs, from the fact that children usually exercise these 
hmbs more than any other part of the body ; conse- 
quently, they need most exercises for the trunk, arms, 
and chest.* 

Several of these movements act upon the same or- 
gans of the body in a different manner, such as the 

* Teachers desiring more extended suggestions on physical ex- 
ercises, to aid in presenting other movements when the children 
lose their interest in these from familiarity and frequent use, will 
find among the books most suitable for this pui-pose, "Physiology 
and Calisthenics, for Schools and Families, by Catharine E. Beech- 
er;" "The Family Gymnasium, by Dr. R. T. Trail;" "The 
Swedish Movement-Cure, by Geo. H. Taylor, M.D." Many new 
and valuable suggestions for physical exercise in school may also 
be obtained from " Dr. Lewis's Journal of Physical Culture," pub- 
lished in Boston. 



238 PHYSICAL TRAmiNG. 

various arm moyements ; hence it would not be well 
for the teacher to require the class to go through with 
the entire list of movements at one time. It will 
usually afford sufficient exercise to perform from six 
to ten movements at one drill, and those should be so 
selected as to exercise as wide a range of organs as 
possible. For example, let one drill embrace 

Nos. 2, 6, 11, 20, 24, 27. 

Another, Nos. 1, 5, 10, 19, 23, 26. 

Another, Xos. 3, 4, 8, 13, 18, 21. 

Another, Xos. 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21. 

Another, Nos. 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and so on. 

First, require every pupil to observe the teacher : 
this attention must be secured, or the exercises can 
not be successfully introduced. When giving these 
movements, the teacher should stand in front of the 
pupils, at such a distance that all the motions can be 
distinctly seen and the directions clearly understood. 
Care should be taken to secure prompt and uniform 
action by all the pupils, for this precision will add 
greatly to the interest of the exercises, and also to 
their beneficial effects upon the system. Indeed, 
promptness and decision alone will keep up interest in 
the movements for a long time, when all other means 
have failed. 

After the pupils have become familiar with these 
movements, the teacher may indicate those to be made 
by calling the numbers, or, at first, it might be well 
also to name the class of movements, as "Hand Move- 
ment, No. 20 ;" " Head Movement, No. 3 ;" " Trunk 
Movement, No. 26." 



AMUSEMENTS. 239 

During these exercises there should be an earnest 
cheerfuhiess, and, if amusements can be combined with 
them, their beneficial results will be more apparent. 
Some of the exercises require slow movements ; others 
may be increased in rapidity, so as to be more enliv- 
ening, after the children have become accustomed to 
them. 

Physical training should not be confined to the 
school-room. To train children properly, amusing 
games ought to be devised for play-ground exercises, 
and such as will cultivate kindly affections. Discour- 
age all games of chance, but encourage all games of 
skill and dexterity. Give the children plenty of fun — 
plenty of real, hearty, innocent fun. If you don't 
give them this, they will take it in the form of mis- 
chief. Do not seek to deprive them of amusement, 
but guide them in suitable sports, and you will win 
their confidence, love, and obedience. 

How often shall physical exercises be used in 
school ? Every hour, and continued from one to five 
minutes on each occasion. If a physical exercise oc- 
cupying one minute should precede every mental ex- 
ercise, better attention could be secured in the class, 
and the pupils would feel less fatigue than without it ; 
but even physical exercises might be carried to an 
excess. 

It should be remembered that children can not sit 
still long in one position. God bestows upon them a 
propensity to continual restlessness with a view to 
their good, and this should suggest to the teacher the 
principles for training them. Give short lessons, and 



240 PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

a variety during each day, and intersperse them with 
a few jDhysical movements, so as to increase the vari- 
ety, add to the interest of the school, and to the health 
of the i^upils. 

The primary school should be a light, cheerful place. 
The hours of school attendance should not be long; 
from four to five hours a day, for a primary school, is 
better than six, even for mental proficiency. A pri- 
mary school that has even five hours of session per 
day should have an hour or more of interval at mid- 
day. Besides, there should be one or two recesses 
during each session. The exercises of the school 
should be so arranged as to give a change of position 
and subject as often as every fifteen or twenty min- 
utes. IsTo child will give sufiicient attention to derive 
much benefit from a lesson that continues more than 
twenty minutes. Five and ten minute lessons, on 
some subjects, are better than longer ones. Lessons 
occupying difierent senses should follow each other, 
as the change afibrds relief to the mind. 

Singing is a physical exercise of wonderful power 
in relieving the more serious work of the school. It 
exerts a calming influence after exertion, and a cheer- 
ing influence on exertion to be put forth. A cheerful 
song is a ventilation of the mind, giving an outlet to 
the pent-up feelings of the child, which is refreshing. 
Singing is indispensable to the successful manage- 
ment of a primary school ; it is a great moral engine. 

Exercise songs, in which various physical actions 
are represented or performed by the pupils, are very 
appropriate for primary schools ; but when an attempt 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 241 

is made to teach geography, arithmetic, or any other 
science by means of singing, it is not appropriate. 
If an observing teacher will notice the effect of sing- 
ing on the minds of children, she will perceive that it 
does not excite the intellectual faculties, but that one 
class of tunes lulls the mind into inactivity, while an- 
other produces a kind of physical excitement. The 
province of singing is not with the intellectual pow- 
ers, but with the feehngs and the heart, and it should 
be used in its proper sphere. 

Training the voice in the elementary sounds of the 
language and in reading may be used profitably in 
physical culture. Marching with military step and 
precision on leaving the room, or in going to and 
from recitations, are useful exercises. 

Neatness and cleanliness of person are very essen- 
tial points. Proper modes of sitting, standing, walk- 
ing, holding a book or slate, distinct articulation in 
speech, all belong to physical culture. Fresh air and 
thorough ventilation are indispensable. 
L 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 



" Knowledge of the nearest things should be acquired first, then 
that of those farther and farther off." — Cohekius. 



No child is prepared to enter upon the study of 
geography until he has acquired ideas of j^lace, and is 
able to comprehend the relative position of objects 
around him. Geography is the study of things^ and 
it should be made a series of object-lessons on the 
earth, with its more striking external objects, its prod- 
ucts and occupiers. 

When this study was first introduced into schools, 
it was thought that, from its having things for its 
subject-matter, it would act as a counterpoise to the 
too exclusively verbal and abstract character of the 
other studies ; but it has signally failed in this, from 
the abstract manner in which it has come to be chiefly 
taught. 

Probably there is no study pursued in our schools 
where greater defects exist in methods of teaching it 
than in geography. N"ow and then a teacher has 
broken away from custom, thrown away his text- 
books, until his pupils obtained a start in the right di- 
rection, and, by consulting nature more and books less, 



DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 2-ic) 

has succeeded in making geography one of the most 
successful and profitable of studies. 

Richly as this subject abounds in attractive objects, 
both of nature and the works of art ; diversified as 
are the soil and productions of the earth ; various as 
are its people, with their diflfering customs and man- 
ners ; innumerable as are its animals and their habits ; 
changeable as is its climate ; and so full of thrilling 
interest as are the records of man's doings and deeds 
of valor, geography should be made the most attract- 
ive of studies ; but, alas ! it has been stripped of near- 
ly all that gives it a charm, and presented to our chil- 
dren in the shape of formal definitions, bare statistics, 
mere localities, neither of which awaken thought in 
the pupil's mind, consequently the study becomes a 
weary burden of rote-learning and unprofitable tasks. 

" What is the natural mode of instruction in geog- 
raphy ?" We shall try to answer this question in the 
following pages. 

During the years of infancy and childhood a great 
many facts pass under the observation of children, 
making more or less vivid impressions on their minds, 
yet perhaps the majority of them do not call forth 
their interest and observation sufiiciently to produce 
clear and distinct ideas even of the significance of the 
objects which are familiar about home. 

The teacher should avail herself first of this stock 
of imperfect ideas which the child has accumulated ; 
then bring into exercise the slumbering perceptions, 
and develop these impressions for a foundation of fu- 
ture instruction. In other words, begin with lessons 



244 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

at home ; first develop clearly and establish firmly the 
simple facts that the child has already acquired, and 
then so connect subsequent instruction with that which 
has been previously acquired that the latter shall en- 
twine itself with the former, and also become fixed in 
the mind by the strongest associations. So, in geog- 
raphy, begin at home, and go away step by step, as- 
sociating each new fact with one early learned at home. 
This method employs that which is known to the 
child as the means of teaching him that which he does 
not know. It makes geography one of the most in- 
teresting of studies. 

What the primary teacher shall do first, and how 
proceed in these lessons preparatory to the introduc- 
tion of geography by the use of text-books, on enter- 
ing the junior or grammar schools, will be the prov- 
ince of the following lessons to suggest. 

Although we have divided the successive points to 
be developed into lessons, yet the teacher must not 
take it for granted that all given under one lesson is 
always to be taught at one exercise. We have aimed 
chiefly to show the successive steps in the develojD- 
ment of this subject by their divisions, and to give 
suggestions as to the manner for training the children 
in them. This is deemed sufiicient for all practical 
uses, as the teacher, to be successful, must shape the 
lessons to the special wants of her pupils, whether 
each exercise is distinctly marked out, or only the 
leading steps in development given. 



IDEAS OF PLACE. 245 

LESSON I. 

TO DEVELOP IDEAS OF PLACE. 

In teaching children the first ideas of place, the 
number of objects referred to should be very limited. 
Require them to name the position of the objects in 
the school-room, first telling where the desk stands — 
at one end of the room ; then where the stove, or fire- 
place, or register is ; then the door ; next the windows. 
The location of the blackboard, various maps, etc., 
may follow. 

Call upon a pupil to stand before the class, and de- 
scribe the position of objects in reply to questions by 
the members of the class ; as, Where is the black- 
board ? " At my left hand." Where is the teacher's 
desk ? " At my right." Where is the door ? " Be- 
hind me." Where is your seat ? " In front of me." 

This exercise should be varied by the teacher's ask- 
ing the questions, and by the several pupils answering 
singly, as the first one did. 

Second Exercise. — For another exercise, talk with 
them about home, about the difierent rooms in the 
house, as kitchen, pantry, dining-room, parlor, bed- 
room, etc. Ask them to tell you for what purpose 
each room is used, and on which side of the kitchen 
is the pantry ; where the dining-room is ; where the 
parlor and bed-rooms are. Let them also tell you of 
some of the prominent objects around the house, as 
the barn and wagon-house, if it be in the country. 



246 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

Third Exercise. — For an exercise in position, place 
on a table a book, a globe, an inkstand, a bell, and a 
hat, or otlier objects which may easily be obtained. 
First arrange one in the centre, and the others at 
each of the corners ; then let the pupils tell in turn 
what objects are on the side or end next to them, and 
which are opposite. 

They may be permitted to change the position of 
the objects, and then describe their places with refer- 
ence to each other, using the terms right and left to 
indicate the directions. 

After placing the objects in some position on the 
table, and requiring the children to observe how they 
are placed, remove a part of them, and let the children 
put them back in the same jDosition ; then remove all 
the objects, and request the children to rejDlace them. 

ISText the teacher may draw uj^on the blackboard 
the shape of the table, and request the children to 
place marks in the figure on the board to show where 
the diflerent objects on the table are located. Let 
them co23y this on their slates when they have taken 
their seats. 

Fourth Exercise.— Let the teacher draw the sim- 
ple outline of the end elevation of a house, with win- 
dows and doors, and require the children to select 
laths, and represent the same on the table, using shin- 
gles, or large and small books for the doors and win- 
dows. Drawings of various objects may thus be repre- 
sented with the laths, etc. This exercise will call into 
use the knowledge of form and size, as well as of jDlace. 



POINTS OF COMPASS. 247 

LESSON n. 

POINTS OF COMPASS. 

Can you point to the place where the sun rises in 
the morning? Where does it set at night? The 
name of the point where the sun rises is called the 

,* and the name of the place where the sun sets 

is called the .* Now where does the sun rise ? 

"The sun rises in the east." Where does the sun set? 

Point to the east — to the west. ISTow stand with 
your right hand to the east. Which way is your left 
hand ? " Toward the west." Now stand with your 
right hand toward the west. Which way is your left 
hand ? " Toward the east." 

Once more stand with your right hand toward the 
east and your left hand toward the west. The point 

before you is called ,* and the point behind you 

is called the .* Now point to the north — to the 

south. 

Stand with your right hand toward the north. 
Which way is your left hand ? What point is before 
you ? What behind you ? 

Stand with your right hand toward the west. In 
what direction is your left hand ? What point is be- 
fore you ? What behind you ? 

Stand with your right hand toward the south. In 
what direction is your left hand? What is before 
you ? What behind you ? 

* Some of the children will be able to supply the ellipsis. 



248 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

Through which window in the school-room will the 
sun shine in the morning? Through which in the 
afternoon ? 

As I was walking the other day, I saw the sun be- 
fore me, appearing like a very large red ball, and sink- 
ing behind the hills. In what direction must I have 
been walking ? 

My bedroom has large windows on one side of it. 
When the sun rises in the morning, it shines in at my 
windows very brightly. On which side of the house 
is my bedroom ? On which side of my room are the 
windows ? 

Ask the children similar questions about their own 
rooms at home, and excite them to observe and tell 
as much as possible. At the close of the lesson they 
may repeat — 

The i^oint ichere the sun rises is called the east, and 
lohere it sets the icest. 

Second Exercise. — At a subsequent exercise, ask 
the children which way the back is when a person 
walks toward the north. Which way would the right 
hand be ? Which the left ? 

Call a child to walk across the floor from the north 
to the south ; another from the south toward the 
north; another from the east to the west; another 
from the west toward the east. 

Let them place two sticks on the floor across each 
other, so that one shall point north and south, the 
other east and west. 

Place one child near one end of the room, another 



POINTS OF COMPASS. 249 

near the other, then require each to tell in what direc- 
tion the other is from him. 

Third Exercise.— Let the children tell what direc- 
tion they take in coming to school from home, what 
direction they take to go home from school. The 
same may be required relative to prominent localities 
in the vicinity of the school. 

The object at this stage of the development is to 
keep the learners so long upon each new idea that it 
may be Avell fixed in their minds, and to vary the ex- 
amples so as to keep up the interest. The more the 
teacher can devise for the children to do themselves 
during these exercises, the greater will be their in- 
terest and consequent improvement. The teacher 
must be able to determine when to bring a fresh sub- 
ject before them in the lesson, and, in doing this, two 
points must be kept in view : 

Flrst^ see that the children are firmly placed on one 
step of this ladder of learning before they take anoth- 
er; see that they understand and can tell what they 
have already learned before presenting them any thing 
new to be learned. 

Second^ do not weary and disgust them by keep- 
ing too long before them one idea in the same form. 
Constantly vary the mode of illustration, and combine 
the amusing whenever possible, keeping in view, as 
the prominent idea, the end to be attained in teaching. 

It is not necessary always to require the children to 
be in precise order ; this is contrary to the joyous pe- 
riod of infancy. The teacher should have such com- 
L2 



250 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

mand as to keep the strictest of order when she 
pleases. Indeed, order should be the rule ; the ex- 
ception should only be in those exercises where the 
end can be better attained without it. 



LESSON in. 

SHOWnSTG THE NECESSITY OF FIXED POINTS. 

When I asked you about the position of the differ- 
ent objects in this room, you said one was at your 
right hand, another at your left, and so on. ISTow I 
desire to talk more about the direction of objects. 
Observe where I stand. Now if you were to direct 
me which way to walk to find the door, what would 
you say ? " You must go to the right." [Teacher 
turns half round.] Must I go to the right now? "No, 
it is behind you." [Turning half round again.] Now 
must I go to the right ? " No, the door is at your 
left now." 

Thus you perceive that, before you can direct a 
jDcrson which way to go by the use of the terms right 
or left, you must know how he is standing. 

Suppose a person should call at the door of the 
school-room and inquire the way to the post-ofiice, 
would it do to say " Go to your right," when you did 
not know how he stood ? Why might he not be able 
to find the post-office from such a direction ? " Be- 
cause his right hand might point in the wrong direc- 
tion." 



NECESSITY OF FIXED POINTS. 251 

Can yon think of any points that do not change? 
"East, west, north, south." If the man at the door, 
who inquired for the direction to the post-office, has 
learned which way is north, and south, and east, and 
west, could you direct him to the post-office ? What 
would you say to him ? "Go north on this street 
^till you come to the white building on the corner; 
there you will find the post-office." 

Would it make any difierence howdie stood when 
you gave him this direction ? Does the place of north 
change when we change ? Now, if you should tell 
me that I must go to the north from my desk to reach 
the door of this room, would it make any difierence 
which way I stood at the time? I hope you now 
understand* the importance of the fixed points of 
north, south, east, and west, which remain in the 
same -place every where. 

Second Exercise. — Now you may tell me in what 
directions the different objects in the room are located. 
Where is the stove ? On which sides of the stove are 
the windows ? At which end is the teacher's desk ? 
Which direction from you is the street ? 

Proceed in this manner until the pupils are able to 
designate the relative position of all objects in the 
room by the points of compass. 

* It may be found that a few points in these lessons have not 
been carried out sufficiently minute for some pupils ; in such cases 
the teacher should always extend them with other simple illustra- 
tions. Our aim is chiefly to suggest how the subject should be 
handled. 



252 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 



LESSON IV. 

EEPEESENTING THE POSITION OF OBJECTS ON THE 
BLACKBOAED, AND APPLYING THE POINTS OF COM- 



PASS. 



I am now going to make a drawing or map of this 
room on the felackboard, and I wish you to tell me 
where to place the marks by which I represent the 
different objects. First tell me in what direction 
your faces are. "Toward the north." Which way 
is your right hand ? Which way your left hand ? 

Here are some important facts to be remembered 
when we draw a map of any thing. The marks rep- 
resenting the north jDart, side, or end of the object 
must be placed at the top of the blackboard or slate, 
and those representing the south part at the bottom 
of the board; those representing the east and west 
portions at the right and left sides of the slate or 
blackboard. 

What part of this room shall I represent at the top 
of the blackboard ? " The north end." [The teacher 
draws a line near the top of the board.] Now where 
must I make a line to represent the south end ? " At 
the bottom of the board." [The teacher draws it.] 

Which side of you is toward the east ? " My right 
side." Very good; where must I draw the line to 
represent the east side of the room ? " On the right 
side of the board." 

What have I now formed on the board ? " Two 



KEPRESENTING THE POSITION OF OBJECTS. 253 

right angles." How many lines have I drawn? 
" Three." 

On which side of you is the west side of the room ? 
" On my left side." On which side of the board 
must I draw the line to represent the west side of the 
room? " On the left side." 

How many angles have I made now ? " Fom\" 
What kind of angles do we call them ? " Right an- 
gles." Does this drawing represent a square ? " No." 
Why not ? " Because its sides are not equal." What 
is its form? "That of a parallelogram." Can you 
describe a parallelogram? "^ parallelogram is a 
figure of four sides^ having more length than breadth^ 
lohose opposite sides are equal and parallel to each 
other P Which way is this room longest ? 

Second Exercise.*— l^ow look about you, and tell 
me where you entered this room. Where is the door? 
" At the south end." At what part of the south end 
is the door ? " In the middle." Then where shall I 
represent the door in this drawing ? " In the middle 
of the line at the bottom of the board." 

What is necessary that we may see each other 
while in the room ? " Light." How do we receive 
light ? " Through the windows." Where are the 
windows ? How many on the east side ? How many 
on the west side? Where shall I make the marks 
to represent the window on the east side which is 

* It may be well to make two exercises of this lesson for some 
schools. When this is done, let the second one commence with 
the representation of the objects in the room. 



254 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

nearest to the north end of the room? "On the 
right side of the drawing, near the top." Where 
shall I place the marks representing the window in the 
east side nearest to the south end ? " On the right 
side of the drawing, near the bottom." Proceed in a 
similar manner to locate the remaining windows. 

Now where shall we locate the teacher's desk? 
" At the top of the drawing, within the lines repre- 
senting the boundaries of the room." Why shall we 
place it there? "Because the desk stands near the 
north end of the room." Where shall I put the mark 
to show the place of the stove ? " In the middle of 
the drawing." 

Proceed in a similar manner with other objects, 
until all the principal ones are located, including the 
seats of the several pupils in the class. 

It would be an excellent plan to draw the outline 
of the school-room on the floor with chalk, and to se- 
lect objects to represent the articles of furniture, and 
request the children to place these in their relative 
positions, and afterward to remove them and indicate 
their places by marks. 

Where the pupils have learned to draw upon their 
slates, these exercises should be repeated, for subse- 
quent lessons, requiring the pupils to draw upon their 
slates each line while the teacher is drawing it upon 
the board. 

Third Exercise. — Review briefly the preceding 
exercises under Lesson IV., and then develop more 
fully the idea of boundaries. 



REPRESENTING THE POSITION OF OBJECTS. 255 

What do the lines on the board which show the 
shape of this room represent ? " The walls of the 
room." How many walls has this room? How far 
does the room extend ? " To the walls." These fom- 
walls are the boundaries of the room. How are these 
boundaries represented on the board ? " By lines." 
What must I first do to represent the shape of a 
room ? " Draw its boundaries." What are the 
boundaries of this room ? " Its walls." What rep- 
resent these walls, or the boundaries of this room, on 
the blackboard ? " The lines." 

Here let the teacher illustrate boundaries still far- 
ther by showing them how one block in the city is 
bounded by other blocks, or how one field or lot in 
the country is bounded by other fields or lots, and 
that the streets between the blocks, or the fences be- 
tween the fields or lots, indicate the boundary-lines. 
This may be done by drawing a map of a block or of 
a few lots or fields which are familiar to the children. 

Note. — The divisions which we have made in these lessons may 
not be adapted to all schools. We have indicated what we be- 
lieved to be the most generally applicable. These minor modifi- 
cations for applying the principles of primary instruction described 
in these pages belong to the teacher. In order to be successful in 
teaching by object lessons, she must possess sufficient tact to ena- 
ble her to modify and adapt to the wants and capacities of her pu- 
pils the different lessons presented. Some will need expanding to 
a greater extent than has been given here ; others, for some pupils, 
may be abridged. This matter must be determined by each teach- 
er for herself, and upon the wisdom of that decision and her prac- 
tice will depend her success in developing the minds of children. 



256 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 



LESSO>^ y. 

PLAY-GEOUXDS, STEEETS, AND EELATIYE DISTAIN-CES. 

On taking up each succeeding lesson, the teacher 
should hold with the pupils a conversational review 
of the previous lesson. By this means the successive 
steps of development become more intimately associ- 
ated with each other. Sometimes the teacher might 
here introduce the elliptical method, repeating an ac- 
count of the previous lesson, but omitting words which 
tell what the lesson was about and the points learned, 
to be supplied by the children as the teacher pauses. 
When their age and attainments will admit of it, en- 
courage the children to tell what they learned at the 
previous lesson. 

You have learned about the school-room, and how 
to make a drawing of it on your slates ; now we will 
make a drawing of the play-ground and of the street. 
Which way from the school-room is the play-ground ? 
Which way is the street? Where shall I draw the 
Hue to represent the north end of the play-ground? 
Where the line for the south end? Proceed in a sim- 
ilar manner with all the lines forming the boundaries ; 
then locate the objects of the play-ground, as the 
swing, the place for ball-playing, etc. 

Where does the street lie? " In front of the school- 
room." In what directions does it extend ? " North 
and south, or east and west," as the case may be. 
Do any of you live on this street? Which way is 



EELATIVE DISTANCES. 257 

your home from the school-room ? Do any of you go 
along this street who do not live on it ? 

Now let us draw this street on the board. You 
said this street was in front of the school-room ; now 
will you tell me which way the front is? "West." 
Then the street passes along the west side of the 
scliool-room. In what directions did you tell me it 
extended ? If it extends north and south, how must 
I place the lines on the board to represent it ? "You 
must draw them up and down, from the top to the 
bottom." Now draw them on your slates. 

Suppose you were walking toward the north in 
this street in the morning, over which shoulder would 
you look for the sun ? Which way for the sun in the 
afternoon? Suppose you were walking toward the 
sun at noon, in w^hat direction would you be going ? 

Do any streets cross the one which passes by the 
school-room? In what direction does that run? 
Which way from us is that street ? Do any of you 
live on it ? If you were going home, in what direc- 
tions would you go ? How shall I represent it on the 
board ? 

Similar questions may be asked about all the prin- 
cipal streets in the vicinity, and each one drawn ; but, 
while doing this, the children should be led to distin- 
guish "relative distances" more fully. This idea was 
introduced in the lessons under Size, on page 165, and 
it should be extended here. 

The idea of " measured distance," which was intro- 
duced on page 166, should be continued here, giidng 
the children clear ideas of one, two, three, four, and 



258 DEVELOPIN-G IDEAS OF PLACE. 

five miles. Ask them to tell yon of a place that is a 
mile distant ; then compare this distance with other 
places about as far away. When they become famil- 
iar with a mile, as applied to distance, lead them to 
compare those that are farther away, in a similar 
manner. 

Exercises of this kind can be varied and extended 
with much interest and profit to the children. They 
furnish the very foundations on which to build a 
knowledge of geography by the use of books. They 
should now be taught that these drawings of the 
school-room, of the play-ground, and of the street are 
called maps. 



LESSON VI. 

THE SCALE OE A MAP. 

When the pupils have become familiar with repre- 
senting .the school-room on their slates and on the 
blackboard, and the same with the play-grounds, the 
streets and blocks in their vicinity, or the adjacent 
fields in the country, and also have learned to draw 
plans of the rooms on one floor of their own houses, 
the idea of a scale of maps may be introduced. 

The teacher may draw two maps of the school- 
room on the blackboard, one small one and another 
about four times the size. Point to each, and inquire 
what the two drawings represent, also what is their 
difierence. The idea may be farther illustrated by a 



THE SCALE OF A MAP. 259 

small drawing of an object, and then a large one of 
the same, as a bh'd, a horse, a pair of scissors. 

She may draw the picture of a small horse with a 
very large head and neck, inquiring whether it is a 
good picture of a horse. Lead the children to point 
out the parts which are out of proportion, and tell 
what is wrong. 

You now observe, children, that we may have a 
large drawing or picture, and a small one of the same 
thing, and that each will represent it. You have also 
observed, as in the drawing of the small horse with a 
large neck and head, that a due proportion should be 
kept up in all its parts. When we make a drawing 
of any thing, we can make all of its parts in good pro- 
portion if we measure the object to be drawn and 
measure the picture that we make. But can we make 
the picture as large as the object ? Can we make a 
map on the blackboard as large as this room ? 

Two of you may take this foot-rule and measure 
the length of this room, and two more may take this 
rule and measure the end. Let one measure while 
the other counts the feet. How many feet long is 
the room ? How many feet wide ? 

Now let us measure the blackboard : it is only 
three feet up and down, and six feet long. You see 
we can not draw a map as large as the room. How 
long did you say this room was ? " Twenty-four 
feet." This board is more than twenty-four inches 
up and down ; so we can draw a map and represent 
each foot of the room by one inch on the map. How 
many inches, then, will represent three feet ? 



260 DEVELOPINa IDEAS OF PLACE. 

The room is twenty-four feet long ; now how many 
inches long must I draw the line to represent the 
boundary on one side? Which side did you meas- 
ure? "The east side." Then where must I draw 
the line on the board to represent the boundary on 
the east side? "At the right side of the board." 

Which end of the room did you measure ? " The 
north end." How many feet is it ? "Eighteen feet." 
How many inches long must I draw the line to repre- 
sent this end ? " Eighteen inches long," 

Where must I place the line to represent the north 
boundary of any object ? " At the top of the board." 

The south boundary is also eighteen feet long ; how 
shall I represent it ? "Draw a line eighteen inches at 
the bottom of the board." 

Now the western side of the room is twenty-four 
feet long ; how shall I represent its boundary ? " By 
a line drawn on the west side of the board twenty- 
four inches long. It must touch the ends of the lines 
which bound the room on the north and south." 

Now where is the door? How can I determine 
where to represent it here? "Measure how many 
feet it is from one side." It is six feet from the west 
side ; now where shall I place the mark to represent 
it on the map ? " Six inches from the line represent- 
ing the west boundary, toward the right." 

In this manner the teacher may continue to repre- 
sent the place of the windows, stove, desks, and other 
objects in the room. This exercise may be divided 
into several lessons if the pupils are quite young, and 
at each subsequent lesson the last one should be re- 



THE SCALE OF A MAP. 261 

viewed and something added to it. Great care, how- 
ever, should be taken not to weary the pupils and 
cause them to lose theu' interest by being kept too 
long on one thing. 

Second Exercise. — One day a yard-stick may be 
given to the pupils to ascertain how many yards long 
and wide the play-ground is ; then this should be 
drawn on the board in the same manner as was the 
school-room, except that in this case an inch may rep- 
resent three feet or one yard, instead of one foot, as 
before. 

Third Exercise. — At another lesson, let the street 
in the vicinity of the school be drawn, and now a rod, 
or a quarter of a mile, or even a mile, may be repre- 
sented by an inch. 

Fourth Exercise.— An outline map of the village 
or town, drawn upon a large scale, may now be placed 
before the pupils, and they led to trace out the famil- 
iar streets, buildings, streams, hills, ponds, railroads, 
etc. This map should be drawn on such a scale that 
the distances can be readily measured upon it with a 
common tape measure. The pupils should frequently 
be required to determine the distance from one local- 
ity to another by measurements on the map. The 
town or city ma]p may be succeeded by one of the 
county, showing in outline all the towns and the most 
prominent features of the country, as the lakes, rivers, 
canals, railroads, principal wagon-roads, etc. 



262 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

By this process of first learning the localities about 
home,* and of drawing maps of these, the child comes 
to learn not only how maps are made, but to under- 
stand what they represent. 

Fifth Exercise. — An amusing as well as a very 
profitable exercise may be had by chalking on the 
floor or marking in the play-ground a map of the 
neighborhood, then caUing upon the pupils to go to 
some place in the neighborhood which is represented 
in the sketch, and another pupil to go to some other 
place, and so on. A very instructive amusement for 
the play-ground could thus be furnished. 

This play would take advantage of the fact that 
children are exceedingly fond of inlaying at imitating 
the actions and doings of men and women. At some 
future jDcriod in their study of geography, this play 
might be extended to difierent portions of the county, 
state, and even of the world, and include a descrip- 
tion by each representative of the difierent countries, 
some account of its productions, animals, customs of 
the people, etc. 

* Many valuable suggestions for conducting these early lessons 
in geography may be obtained from * ' Dr. Hooker's Primary 
Geography." 



SURFACE OF LAND. 263 



LESSON vn. 

LAISTD AND WATER, HILLS, MOUNTAINS, PLAIlSrS, AND 
VALLEYS. 

You have doubtless observed, while going about 
the neighborhood or the town, that the country is 
composed of two very different materials. One is 
solid and the other is a liquid. Can you tell me to 
what I refer ? " To land and water." 

Why do you suppose we need the solid land? 
Could we walk on the water ? Could we obtain grain, 
and fruits, and fuel on the water ? But water is nec- 
essary to our life, and to the life of animals and vege- 
tation ; it supplies us with one kind of food and bears 
our ships, so that we may easily go from one place to 
another. What food does the water supply ? 

Now let us examine the land, and see if it is all alike. 

Suppose you were to go from here to , would you 

find the road level like this floor all the way ? How 
would it differ from this floor? Is it easy to walk 
where the land rises up ? 

Sometimes, when people travel, they find the land 
flat or level like the floor for a long distance ; then 
they call it a ^9?aw2. Now, if I talk to you about a 
plain, what will you think about ? " About a large 
piece of land that is level like the floor for a long dis- 
tance." 

You know that we sometimes find places where the 
land rises up. [The teacher represents it by a move- 



264 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

ment of tlie hand upward.] Can you tell me what 
such places are called ? Can you tell me the names 
of any hills that you have seen ? 

But sometimes the land rises a great deal higher 
than the hills — so high that the top is in the clouds ; 
then it is called a mountain. Is a hill rising ground? 
Is a mountain rising ground ? In what, then, are 
they different ? " The mountains rise higher than the 
hiUs." 

Did you ever see a mountain ? "What was it called ? 
Where was it ? Did you ever climb a mountain ? 

Here I have a model of some hills and of a mount- 
ain.* What do we call the part of the mountain that 
we come to first? "The bottom." Yes, it is the 
bottom, but we call it the hase.^ What part of the 
mountain is its base ? When you climb a hill or a 
mountain, at what part of it do you begin ? 

Sometimes we call the part of the mountain or hill 
where we begin to ascend the foot of the hill. On 
what part of the body is your foot ? " The lowest 
part of the body." What is its use ? " To stand 
on," Point to the foot of this mountain — of the hill. 
Where do you begin to go up the hill? "At the 
foot." 

Now point out for me some other part. "The top." 
This is called the summit. What part of the mount- 

* An excellent mode of explaining to children the natural di- 
visions of land into plains, valleys, hills, and mountains, is to pre- 
pare a box about two feet wide, four or six feet long, and eight or 
ten inches deep, and fill it two thirds full of moist sand, which 
may be shaped so as to represent these several divisions. 



SURFACE OF LAND. 265 

ain would you call its summit ? " The highest 
part." 

Now tell me some other part that you observe. " The 
parts between the suimnit and base." These parts be- 
tween the summit and bottom are called the sides of 
the mountain. When you look at the mountain from 
its base, how do the sides appear ? " To slant upward." 

Let us describe a walk up a mountain, telling what 
its principal parts are called. When I pause, you 
must tell me the word to use. 

When we first came to the— foot of the — moioit- 
ain^ we began to — go up the side. At last we ar- 
rived at the — summit^ where the wind was cool. We 
could see a great way around us. When we had 
rested, we turned and came — down the side, and ar- 
rived at last at the — base. « 

Now I desire you to tell me what the land is called 
when it is level for a considerable distance. "A 
plain." What is it called when it rises up, but not 
very high ? "A hill." And what is it called when it 
rises higher than a hill? "A mountain." 

There is still another form of land which we have 
not named. Sometimes you see several hills or mount- 
ains joined together in a long row, and another row 
of hills or mountains near this extending in the same 
direction. Now what can you say of the land which 
lies between these rows of hills or mountains ? " It 
is a deep hollow." Yes ; this deep hollow is called 'a 
valley. What is the hollow that runs between hills 
or mountains called? What has a valley on each side 
of it? 

M 



266 DEVELOPINQ IDEAS OF PLACE, 

Now you have learned about four different parts 
of land ; what are these called ? " Mountains, hills, 
plains, and valleys." In which of these do you think 
it would be most pleasant to live ? Suppose the wind 
blew very strong, and it was piercingly cold, how 
would the people on the plain feel, with nothing to 
shelter them ?* 



LESSON vni. 

ABOUT EIVEES, LAKES, A]^T) THE OCEAN. 

If the children have not seen a river, the teacher 
must develop the idea of one by leading them to see 
the difference between a little brook and a larger 
stream, showing them how little rills or brooks unite 
and make a larger stream, and then tell them that 
several of these streams unite and form a river, which 
is a very large stream of water. The water in the 
river is wide and deep. Boats and ships go on rivers. 
The water does not keep still in a river ; it flows 
along all the time, day and night. 

Sometimes a river runs into a very large pond of 
water. What must there be in the land to hold the 
water? "A large and deep hole." When these 
ponds of water are very large — so large that it would 
t^ke you many hours to go from one end to the other, 

* This lesson is not intended to complete the subject; the 
teacher can readily extend it. considering the advantages and dis- 
advantages of a residence on these several divisions of land. 



RIVERS, LAKES, AND THE OCEAN. 267 

they are called lakes. Then "what may you call a 
pond ? "A very small lake." 

You have learned something about water in streams, 
and rivers, and ponds, and lakes; but there is more 
water than you will find in all the rivers and lakes in 
the world. There is more water than land in the 
world. Did any of you ever hear of a very large 
body of water, where the largest ships sail, and where 
it takes them a great many days to go across it — it is 
so very wide ? " Yes, the ocean." This is the largest 
body of water in the world. The water of the ocean 
is very salt. 

Now repeat the names of all the divisions of water 
that you have learned. " Brooks, rivers, ponds, lakes, 
and ocean." Which is the largest ? Which the small- 
est ? In which does the water move along ? 

It will not be advisable to proceed as rapidly as we 
have done here from one step to another. Our aim 
has chiefly been, as we have frequently stated, to sug- 
gest methods of illustration and development of the 
various ideas to be taught in geography. These les- 
sons are chiefly intended to be presented before the 
child has a book put into its hands to study geog- 
raphy. However, it is not expected that this plan of 
teaching the real things, instead of committing words 
to memory to be recited, will be discontinued when 
the child takes a book to study ; rather let the book 
be employed only as an aid to enable the teacher to 
proceed the more rapidly in the object-lessons of 
geography. 

When the pupils have become familiar with all the 



268 DEVELOPING IDEAS OF PLACE. 

subjects presented under the head of Place, other 
steps in geography may be taken, developing ideas of 
an island, isthmus, peninsula, cape, bay, harbor, etc. 
Great aid in these lessons may be derived from a set 
of geographical cards,* representing both a map and 
a picture of each of these divisions. 

With these suggestions, it is hoped that teachers 
may be able to lay the foundation for an inteUigent 
study of geography from books. 

Note. — When the pupils come to learn about different countries, 
let the teacher devote more attention to their physical features; 
the climate, productions, animals, habits, occupations, food, cloth- 
ing, and customs of the people, and the study of geography -will 
become far more interesting and profitable than when the time is 
chiefly spent in learning the names of the rivers, mountains, 
towns, etc. 

A country is too vague a thing for a child to conceive without 
something with which to associate it. Suppose Arabia has been 
assigned as a lesson: let the teacher place before the pupils a 
map of the countiy, then show them the picture of a camel, and 
proceed to describe its habits, modes of life, and the adaptation of 
its feet and stomach to life in the sandy desert ; if possiWe, show 
the picture of a desert scene, with the Arabs in their costume ; let 
the pictures and maps be accompanied with vivid descriptions, and 
the pupils would not only become deeply interested, but they would 
never forget the leading featm-es of Arabia. 

Thus might the lion, elephant, kangaroo, reindeer, ostrich, buf- 
falo, each be used as geographical types, or objects with which to 
associate the countries in which these animals are found. Or- 
anges, figs, cork, tea, coffee, cinnamon, tobacco, cotton, etc., may 
also be used for the same purpose. 

* Colton's Geographical Cards. 



ELEMENTARY READING. 



The art of reading has been considered one of the 
most difficult of human attainments, and as the first 
and only means by which the child can obtain an edu- 
cation. When we remember the unphilosophical and 
arbitrary processes employed to teach children to read, 
it is no longer a matter of surprise that the very 
threshold of knowledge has been to them such a 
source of sorrow and disgust. We believe that there 
is a better method than those usually pursued, and 
that learning to read may be made both pleasant and 
easy for the children. We do not believe that it 
should be made either the first or the only means of 
intellectual education. The foundation for reading 
should be laid with Object Lessons, and these should 
be made a means of development as well as a source 
of instruction. 

That the principles which we regard as most philo- 
sophical for teaching elementary reading may be bet- 
ter understood, we will first describe the other meth- 
ods now chiefly employed for that purpose. 

THE ABC METHOD. 

This " old way" consists in first teaching the names 
of all the twenty-six letters, then of combining these 



270 ELEMENTARY READING. 

letters into unmeaning syllables, and subsequently 
into words ; then of siDelling these syllables and words 
orally. This process is rather that of spelling than 
of reading. When the pupils have learned to spell a 
number of words, lessons in sentences are assigned, 
the words of which are spelled and pronounced, and 
this is called reading. 

In regard to the results of this method, the follow- 
ing statements may be made : When the child has 
succeeded in learning the twenty -six meaningless 
letters, he has gained no knowledge of their use, and 
acquired nothing but the habit of repeating their 
names without any development of thought. These 
names only mislead, being constantly in the way of 
determining the true sounds of the letters when he 
comes to form them into words ; thus he is continual- 
ly puzzled with the variety of the names assumed 
when in company with their fellow-letters. Again, 
the words are also meaningless, because lying beyond 
the range of those with which he is familiar. Thus 
he begins to read without understanding what he is 
reading, and the foundation is laid for that mechanical 
process which characterizes so large a portion of the 
reading exercises heard in schools. 

The first associations with books in the school- 
room by this method call up no familiar ideas of 
things, and afford no development of the child's facul- 
ties. This method does not usually lay the foundation 
for a love of reading, to be continued during subse- 
quent years. It is not only unphilosophical and unnat- 
ural, but it is unsatisfactory in its results, and produces 



THE PHONIC METHOD. 271 

halting, stumbling readers. It is now abandoned by 
all good teachers. 

THE PHONIC METHOD. 

The "phonic method" consists in teaching the pow- 
er or sounds of the letters instead of their names, and 
of combining these sounds into words. When this 
method is aiDplied to our common letters, several of 
which represent many sounds, the child finds that the 
power of the letter, changes in different words, and 
affords but a little better guide than the name of it in 
determining what to call the word. If he is taught 
the sounds of the letters in the word cap, and then 
tries to read cape, he is soon told that a has a new 
^ sound ; also that the letter e, to which he gave a sound 
in he, has no sound in cajDe. Thus obstacles similar 
to those found when teaching the names of letters oc- 
cur at every step. 

Some teachers, however, have so far systematized 
this method as to use it with a good degree of suc- 
cess. Suppose the lesson to commence with mat, the 
teacher would require the pupils to repeat the word, 
then more and more slowly, gradually dwelling longer 
and longer on each sound, until it is not only disSn- 
guished, but till the pupils are able to repeat it sep- 
arately. When this word is learned, e is substituted 
for m, and c a t is formed, and the sounds of its letters 
learned as before. Then rat, hat, hat, and several 
other famihar words follow, in which a has the same 
sound. Then a class of simple words in which a has 
a different sound is introduced, and learned by the 



272 ELEMENTARY READING. 

same process. In tMs manner the several vowel and 
consonant sounds are taught in classes of words ; then 
the words in which silent letters occm- are jDresented in 
a similar manner. Subsequently the irregular words, 
as doughy cough^ tough^ bought through^ thought^ are 
classified under the sounds of o, off^ iiff^ oio^ oo^ au. 

THE PHO^TETIC OK PHONOTYPIC METHOD. 

This is another form of the phonic method^ yet it 
differs widely from that in its aiDj^Hcation, as it pro- 
vides a distinct character for each sound in the lan- 
guage, so that the child learns forty or more letters 
instead of twenty-six. As the letters are learned, they 
are combined into words in w^liich the sounds are al- 
ways the same as the name of the letter. This meth- 
od removes that great stumbling-block in the way of 
elementary reading, the use of the same letter to rep- 
resent various sounds. 

Experiments have been tried in several places by 
teaching children to read from phonotypic characters 
first, and w^hen they have learned to read fluently in 
primary readers with these letters, those with the com- 
mon letters are substituted. This plan is commended 
by many good teachers; but it is objected to by oth- 
ers on the ground that it imposes on pupils the task 
of learning an extensive alphabet that is afterward 
not used in our books. 

THE "WOED METHOD. 

The " word method" consists in teaching words by 
their forms, the same as .one learns the names of ar- 



THE WORD-BUILDING METHOD. 273 

tides of furniture, of dress, or of animals, by looking 
at them as a whole. In using this method, familiar 
words are first selected, and the children are taught 
to distinguish them by their shape, and to speak them 
at sight. In this manner they begin early to learn 
that words mean something. 

Some who use this method teach the names of the 
letters, or their sounds, after several words have been 
learned ; others leave the child to pick up the names 
of the letters as best it can. It is justly claimed that 
this method " teaches children to read at sight." It 
does not, however, provide for teaching the formation 
of words by letters, or spelling; consequently the 
child fails to acquire from it the ability to represent 
ideas by means of combining letters into words. 

THE WOED-BUILDIlSrG METHOD. 

This plan was presented some five years ago as a 
new method, and its author claims for it that it 
" unites all the advantages of the old system of teach- 
ing to read, by first commencing with the alphabet, 
and the new and preferable one which begins with 
entire words." It commences with words of one let- 
ter, A, I, O, and gradually forms new words by pre- 
fixing or affixing single letters. The child is first 
taught to pronounce the words, afterward the names 
of the letters. 

The separate letters of the alphabet are to be taught 
by asking questions similar to the following : What 
letter is placed after a to form anf after an to form 
and f before and to form land? etc. 
N 



274 ELEMENTARY READING. 

We believe that the preceding methods embrace 
the principles most commonly used in teaching ele- 
mentary reading, although there are different combi- 
nations of parts of these methods, which are more or 
less successful according to the tact of the teachers 
who devise and use them. 

OBJECTS OF TEACHING EEADI:N-G. 

Before describing what we regard as a better meth- 
od than either of those already mentioned, let us con- 
sider the objects intended to he ciccomiilished by teach- 
ing reading. 

TJie first object in elementary reading should be to 
teach the child to recognize the printed forms of the 
words with which he is familiar in speech. Primary 
reading should not be regarded as a means of extend- 
ing the child's vocabulary of words; therefore the 
words introduced for him to learn should be those 
familiar to his ear, and should be presented that they 
may also become familiar to his eye. Conversation 
is the natural method of acquiring a knowledge of 
words by their sound ; reading should be learning to 
hnow them by sight. 

From the preceding statements, it is evident that 
the child's reading lessons should afford the pleasure 
and stimulus which arises from the recognition by the 
eye of something already known to the mind. The 
lessons should be systematically interwoven with his 
speech by combining them with familiar conversations. 
The subjects of the reading lessons should be things 
with which he is familiar from observation. They 



OBJECTS OF TEACHING READING. 275 

should consist of short sentences which express com- 
plete thoughts. Columns of syllables or single words 
are not suitable for reading lessons. 

The second object in teaching reading should be to 
iwovide a means of gaining Jcnoioledge^ whereby the 
child may learn w^hat others have acquired by years 
of observation and research in the great book of Ma- 
ture. The ability to obtain knowledge from reading, 
and to feel its sentiment, can not be attained without 
understanding what is read, and without feeling the 
sentiment there can be no good reading. To gain 
knowledge from reading, then, there must be both an 
understanding and a feeling of the sentiments and 
thoughts of the author. To attain this clear under- 
standing and feeling, the several steps must be made 
interesting and the curiosity awakened. This can be 
most effectually accomplished by attention to the 
statements j)reviously made, under "the first object in 
teaching reading." 

A third object in teaching reading should be to fur- 
nish a means of communicating our thoughts to oth- 
ers^ and of receimng theirs in return. For this pur- 
pose it is necessary that the child should perceive not 
only that the words which he learns are representa- 
tives of ideas, but how he also can form those words 
to express his own thoughts. Oral spelling is but a 
230or ajDology for accomj)lishing this important result ; 
it can only be successfully attained by forming the 
words with the hand, as with letter-cards, pencil and 
slate, or paper, or upon the blackboard. This princi- 
ple is usually lost sight of in nearly all the methods of 



276 ELEMENTAEY READING. 

teaching reading commonly pursued. Teaching spell- 
ing by means of printing or writing the words is an 
approach toward it, but it must be connected with 
and made a part of the reading exercise itself to fully 
answer this purpose. 

Another object^ and a very important one, in teach- 
ing reading, should be to cultivate a taste for it. A 
recent German author, writing of his own country, 
says, " On an average, there is only one in every hund- 
red who can not read, and in some states only one in 
a thousand." Yet those who are familiar w^ith the 
habits of the people in Germany tell us that, so far as 
reading is concerned, the masses might almost as well 
have never been taught to read, for not one in a himd- 
red ever thinks of reading. It is true that obstacles 
may intervene between learning to read at school and 
the practice of it in subsequent life, to cause a part of 
this neglect of reading ; such as the absence of the 
popular and cheap newspaper, the high prices of books, 
etc. ; yet in a country where there are more than 2500 
bookstores, 150 public libraries, and where from 8000 
to 10,000 new books are published every year, there 
can hardly be insurmountable obstacles. This neglect 
of reading must be attributable in no small degree to 
the failure of so teaching it as to develop a taste for it, 
and to associate pleasure with its use. 

What a lesson for educators to contemplate ! Can 
it be said that the ability to read is all that is neces- 
sary to be taught ? Is there no higher duty than to 
train the pupils to read, according to the rules of the 
elocutionist, the several lessons assigned them ? 



OBJECTS OF TEACHING READING. 277 

The relations that the ability to read should sustain 
to the future duties in life, and the best means of caus- 
ing that ability to aid in preparing for those duties, 
are among the most important objects that can claim 
the attention of teachers and the friends of education. 
We fear that the mighty influence of reading upon 
the mind and character of the future citizen is not 
sufiiciently understood by those who have the power 
of directing this influence in early life. 

These considerations should influence the choice in 
selecting reading -books for schools, also those for 
home reading. The books used in. the school, in ad- 
dition to lessons adapted to elementary instruction, 
should have a higher aim than merely to aid in ac- 
quiring the ability to read. The lessons should be 
connected intimately with the world of objects around, 
presenting the interestiag facts concerning them so as 
to enkindle a desire to read and learn more about 
them. Besides, these lessons should be sufliciently 
varied and extensive to present some idea of the lead- 
ing departments of knowledge, especially of those that 
come from observations of nature and the manual la- 
bors of man.* To consider the art of reading in an 

* Those familiar with the new series of readers prepared by 
Maecius Willson will recognize these principles in their ar- 
rangement; simple conversations about familiar objects, or pic- 
tures of them, for the first reading lessons, succeeded gradually by 
the introduction of the natural history of animals, birds, fishes, 
reptiles, plants, minerals, etc., and all interspersed with a variety 
of miscellaneous exercises, to secure the necessary elocutionary 
training. 



278 ELEMENT AEY READING. 

elocutionary view only or cliiefly, is to lose sight of its 
most important object. 

To enable teachers most successfully to cultivate in 
their pupils correct habits of reading, and such a taste 
for it as will be likely to continue through life, we 
would suggest that every senior, grammar, or high 
school should be provided with a library of suitable 
books to furnish entertaining and profitable instruc- 
tion. The subjects treated in the library books should 
be associated with the lessons in school as far as pos- 
sible. 

In view of these objects for which reading should 
be taught, the question asked by the teacher should 
not be, JBy which method can I succeed in getting 
children to repeat the words of a sentence fluently in 
the least time ? but rather. What method is most com- 
pletely in harmony with the natural develoimient of 
the faculties of children, and what processes of train- 
ing will render the abiUty to read the most useful in 
after life ? 

In answer to this last inquiry, we will j^roceed to 
give a philosophical and j)ractical method for teaching 
children the elementary steps of reading by 

THE OBJECT METHOD. 

The most suitable introduction to teaching reading 
consists of famiUar conversations similar to those de- 
scribed under " Development in Observation," on 
pages 26, 27, and 28. After a brief conversation about 
some familiar object, which should be shown, or a pic- 
ture of it (and it would be better still if both the ob- 



THE OBJECT METHOD. 279 

ject and picture could be presented), the teacher pro- 
ceeds to the first step in developing ideas of reading 
by asking, 

What do I hold in my hand ? "A cap." What do 
you see in this book ? "A cap" — " a j^icture of a 
cap." Those of you who think it a cap may hold up 
your hands. Those who think it a picture of a cap 
may hold up their hands. That is right; it is the 
picture^ of a cap, and not a real cap. 

What is a cap for ? " To wear on the head." Why 
do boys wear caps on their heads ? " To keep them 
warm." Can you wear \hQ, incture of a cap? 

Now look at me ; I am making the toord cap, [The 
teacher prints the word cap on the blackboard with 
chalk, or takes letter-cards and forms the word on a 
table, or in a grooved stick, before the children. The 
lower-case, or small letters, should always be used in 
these first lessons.] 

ISTow look at me again ; what have I in my hand ? 
" A cap" — " a real cap." What do you see in this 
book ? "A picture of a cap." What is this on the 
blackboard ? [on the table,, or in the stick, as the case 
may be.] "The word cap." What do you do with 
a real cap ? " Wear it on the head." Can you wear 
the v3ord cap ? " No." 

I will now make another word cap. [After form- 
ing the word, the teacher points to both the words.] 
What is this word? "Cap." And this? "Cap." 
Now I will make more words. [Form this word 

* If the teacher can draw readily with chalk, she should also 
draw the picture upon the blackboard. 



280 ELEMENTARY READING. 

two or three times.] What is this ? and this ? and 
this ? " Cap"—" cap"—" cap." 

Who will take the pointer and show me the words 
cap ? Jane may. ISTow Henry may jDoint to them. 
[Show the word cap in a book.] What is this in the 
book ? " The loord cap." 

ISTow tell me how many real caps I have. " One." 
How manj 2ncture caps ? " One." How many ivord 
caps ? One in the book, and four on the . " Five." 

Placing the letters cap, two or three of each, upon 
the table, the teacher says, Now who will try to make 
the word cap with these letters? Charles and Ella 
may try. Very well done ; now John and Mary may 
form the word. 

Proceed in this manner until each pupil is able to 
form the word, and to speak it at sight, whether on 
the board, in the book, on a card, or made with the 
letter-cards. 

These steps are quite sufficient for one lesson ; yet, 
if properly taken, the interest of the children may be 
kept up almost to the pitch of excitement. 

Philosophy of this Method. — Before proceeding with the 
second lesson, let us examine the philosoj^liy of this method. 

First. It commences with what the child already knows, using 
it as a means of communicating other knowledge. 

Second. It teaches the child words as representatives or signs of 
objects or ideas, and leads him to distinguish the difference be- 
tween an object, the picture of it, and the word or name of it, and 
at the same time to consider the uses of each ; thus the first lesson 
becomes a process of training which develops thought. 

Third. It leads not only to the ability to speak the word at sight, 
but trains the child to form it himself from the several letters 



THE OBJECT METHOD. 281 

which compose it, thus securing all that is practical in spelling. 
This plan of word-forming is natural, and in accordance with the 
practical operations of the mind in spelling, as used in the duties 
of life. First, there is the idea to be represented; second, the 
hand produces the word by placing letters in their proper positions, 
or in fonning them thus with the pencil or the pen. "We never 
begin to represent our ideas through words by placing a group of 
letters together and then calling over their names to ascertain 
what they spell. The idea comes first, the mode of repi^esenting it 
follows. 

Fourth. It takes advantage of that natural desire in the child to 
do, and by gratifying this desire it secures the influence of that 
principle, previously pointed out in this work, that it is what the 
child DOES that it learns to know. 

Second Exercise.— What word did you learn at 
the last lesson? "Caj)." Show me that word on 
the blackboard or on the card. Now show it to me 
in this book. Emma may select the letters to make 
the word. [It would be well to have only the letters 
of the word to be formed before them at first, but 
there should be two or three of each letter.] 

We will now learn a new word. What is this ? 
" A cat" — " a picture of a cat." You do not seem to 
agree ; which shall we call it, a real cat or the picture 
of a cat? '■'■ A. picture of a cat." Very well; let us 
try to remember this. Who will tell me something 
about a cat ? 

Now see me make the iGord cat. [The teacher 
forms two words cat with the letter-cards, or prints 
them on the blackboard.] What did I tell you I was 
making? "The word catP How many words cat 
have I made? "Two." Lucy may come and point 
to them. 



282 ELEMENTARY EEADING. 

What is tMs ? " The picture of a cat;" Can 2. pic- 
ture of a cat catch mice ? Can it see ? Can the icord 
cat run ? 

Placing several i's on the table, with the letters used 
to form the word cap^ call upon the pupils to inake 
the word cat. When they can do this readily, require 
them also to form cap^ then to speak both words at 
sight. 

Show the word cat in the book, then both words, 
until each pupil can name them readily. 

Xow point to these two words on the blackboard 
or on the card, and request the children to tell their 
names until they can give them promptly. 

Finally, call upon a child to point to the word cat 
and tell something about it. " A cat can run," might 
be the remark. Let another point to the word and 
say something else. " The cat can mew." Each pu- 
pil may in turn be required to tell other things about 
the cat ; as, "The cat can pur — catch mice — lap milk — 
has four feet — has long feelers — can see at night," etc. 

This is a reading lesson of no small importance, al- 
though but a single word of it has been learned, or is 
represented before the children. It aids in develop- 
ing thought, awakens an interest in the child, and 
forms the habit of natural, conversational tones in 
reading. A similar exercise should be conducted as 
each new word is learned. 

If the children can use a slate and pencil, let them 
try to print these words on slates after they return to 
their seats. For this purpose, the words should re- 
main on the blackboard or on the cards before them. 






THE OBJECT METHOD. 283 

Third Exercise.— Place before the children the 
words previously learned — cap, cat — and request them 
to name each at sight, as it is pointed at. Then call 
upon the pupils, one at a time, to point at these words 
as the other children in the class name them. Require 
them also to point out these words in a book. Next 
they may form the words with the letter-cards. 

Now present a new word, and proceed as before, 
observing tlie successive steps in developing the les- 
sons : 

First. Shoio the object or the picture, or describe 
the action or quality to be represented, and talk with 
the children about it. 

Second. 3fake the word before the class, and teach 
the pupils to recognize its form and to point it out. 

Third. Require the children to foron the word with 
letter-cards. 

Fourth. Require them to p>oint out and name at 
sight the new word ; also those of the preceding les- 
sons. 

Fifth. Require each pupil to point to the word and 
read it by saying something about that which it rep- 
resents. 

These exercises may be continued until the forms 
of a large list of familiar words have been learned. 

At first those words that are familiar in conversa- 
tion might be selected, which can easily be formed 
from such as have already been learned, paying some 
attention also to similarity of vowel sounds, as rat, 
mat, hat, bat, fat, fan, ran, man, ham, bag frag, fun, 
gun, run, sun, tub, rub, pin, tin, fin, ox, box, fox, dog, 



284 ELEMENTARY READING. 

log, hog, hoy, toy, cow, owl, leg, egg, shy, sly, fly, dry, 
hig,fig, dew, mew, new,feio, top, hop, mop, stop, etc. 

Sounds of Letters. — During these exercises it will 
be projDer to introduce the sounds of the letters in the 
words learned. The child can as easily be taught to 
make the sound of a in hat as of a in hate \ of i in it 
as of i in fire J of in OX as of in nO \ or to make 
the sounds of fj hj 1, or m as to utter their names. 
It is well, also, to spell words by their sounds, with^- 
out naming the letters, as an exercise in articulation. 

The time to commence this exercise, and how ex- 
tensively to practice it, must be determined by the 
teacher. It should not take the place of either step 
indicated in the preceding exercises. The form of 
the ioord,andhoiD to make it,shoiddhe learned before 
the sounds of its letters are introduced to the child. 

Names of Letters. — The names of the letters may 
be taught as new ones occur in the words learned, if 
thought advisable. However, these should not be 
learned for their direct use in learning to read, but 
because they are the names of things that must fre- 
quently be spoken about. They should be learned on 
the same principle that we learn the names of the 
boys and girls in a school, so as to enable us to desig- 
nate those to whom or of whom we speak. 

The forms of the letters having previously been 
learned in making the words with the letter-cards, it 
will readily be seen that the learning of their names 
will be a simple and easy process at this stage. 



THE OBJECT METHOD. 285 

The names of the letters might be taught without 
devoting special attention to them by simj^ly speak- 
ing them whenever the occasion presented. For in- 
stance, if a child, in forming the word cap^ should use 
an e instead of a C, the teacher might say, You have 
made a mistake by using an e in place of a c. 

Suppose the word mat is to be formed with the let- 
ter-cards, the teacher might say, Place the m first, 
then the a, and the t last. Thus various opportuni- 
ties occur for teaching the names of the letters with- 
out giving this subject special attention. When all 
the letters have been learned, they should be present- 
ed in their alphabetic order. This will be important 
in subsequent years for using dictionaries, etc. 

No pains need be taken to teach the capital letters ; 
the children will learn them by their use at the com- 
mencement of sentences, proper names, etc. 

Names of Actions.— A little tact in picturing out 
these words by actions and descriptions will enable 
the teacher to give a clear understanding of those 
which we term verbs, or names of actions ; also of the 
names of quahties, etc. 

Suppose the word run is to be taught : the teacher 
might ask. What must the dog do to catch a pig ? 
"It must run." What do you do when you go as 
fast as you can? "Bun." What animals can run? 
Very well. ISTow I will make the word run. What 
is -this word ? " Run." Here is a word in a book 
like the one I have just made ; what is it ? "Run." I 
will make more words run. What is this ? and this ? 



286 ELEMENTARY READING. 

Next, let the children make this word with letter- 
cards. Then require them to point out these words 
in the same manner as was done with those repre- 
senting names of objects. 

The reading lesson should follow by placing appro- 
priate names previously learned with the word reiDre- 
senting action, as, " dog run," " cow run," " cat run," 
etc. Let the pupils point at the words thus repre- 
sented, and read as follows, using other words in ad- 
dition to those before them, viz.: "The dog can run f 
" See the coid runf "I saw a cat run on the fence." 

The qualifying icords^ as white, black, good, bad, 
slow, fast, long, short, etc., may be readily taught by 
the aid of this " picturing out" process to first explain 
the meaning, so that there can be no doubt about the 
child's understanding it. 

The smaller words, forming the joints and hinges 
of sentences, as the, an, at, of, in, to, by, for, and, etc., 
may easily be taught by using them in sentences with 
words previously learned. For instance, " The dog 
ran at the cat." The frequent introduction of this 
class of words into sentences will soon render their 
forms familiar. These words also should be made 
with the letter-cards after they have been learned by 
their forms. 

A little explanation will also enable the children to 
understand that class of words which are used as sub- 
stitutes for names, as he, she, you, it, etc. 

Making Words in the Air,— Children may be 
trained to form letters and words in the air with 



THE OBJECT METHOD. 287 

their fingers. Print the word hat on the blackboard 
in large letters, then let them trace out the shape of 
the letters with their fingers. In a little time they 
will learn to form words thus quite rapidly. This 
will prove entertaining to them, and greatly aid in 
learning to print or write the words. 

Speaking Words at Sight.— Much practice should 
be given the pupils in speaking words at sight. For 
this purpose, the words learned should often be pro- 
nounced. They might be printed near one end of the 
blackboard whenever cards containing them could not 
easily be provided. Reading-cards save much of the 
time necessarily spent in 2Drej)aring the lessons. 

Reading Lessons. — Let the ])upils furnish a part 
of their own reading lessons. This is a very impor- 
tant step, yet one seldom pursued by teachers, al- 
though so easy of practice, after the elementary read- 
ing lessons before described, where only one or two 
words were represented or had been learned. 

Suppose the word hoy to be the subject of the les- 
son. Request each pupil to say something about the 
boy, which the teacher may print on the blackboard 
or represent with the toord-cardsJ^ One pupil might 
say, " A boy ;" another, "A good boy" — " a bad boy" 

* The box of letter-cards contains several hundred familiar 
words, each on a separate card. These ivord-cards are intended 
to be used in forming sentences with words that have been learned, 
thus saving the time which would be necessary to form each word 
from the letters alone. 



288 ELEMENTARY READING. 

— "a boy can rim" — "the boy has a cap," etc. If 
words not previously learned are thus given by the 
pupils, let the teacher form or print those not too dif- 
ficult to be easily taught at this stage, and proceed as 
in the second exercise. It will seldom be necessary 
to omit any words thus, as the very fact that the chil- 
dren used them in conversation will indicate that they 
understand them by sound, and can easily learn to 
know them by sight. 

If some arrangement, by means of a shelf or a table 
in one corner of the room, could be ^^rovided, whereby 
the pupils, two or three at a time, might go and use 
the letter and word cards in forming words and sen- 
tences between the reading exercises, it would prove 
a great assistance to the children in learning to read. 

Use of Reading-cards.— Reading-cards will be of 
great assistance when the children have learned enough 
words to enable them to form sentences. But, to be 
of much utihty, these cards must contain that class of 
words with which the child becomes familiar through 
conversation.* It will readily be seen where and how 
these cards can be used profitably in this object method 
of teaching reading, both while learning to recognize 
the forms of words and in reading sentences formed 
with them. However, the reading-cards should not 
take the place of the letter and word cards or the 
blackboard in teaching the children to make words 
and form sentences. 

* A set of "Primary Reading-charts" have been prepared, 
adapted to teaching elementary reading by the object method. 



THE OBJECT METHOJD. 289 

It would be an advantage to have some of the cards 
contain a part of the lessons in the first reading-book 
or primer, that when the child begins its reading from 
the book it will meet with familiar words and sen- 
tences. 

Use of Books. — As the number and variety of 
words learned increase, books may be gradually intro- 
duced, until reading lessons can be given from them 
alone. Should new words occur, while thus using the 
reading-book, which the child has a difficulty in un- 
derstanding or remembering, resort to the objects, the 
" picturing out" process, and the letter-cards or black- 
board, as before described. 

It would be w^ell to give some attention to the 
words in the primer, or the first reading-book to be 
used subsequently, in these elementary reading les- 
sons. However, the learner should not be confined 
to these words, since those familiar in conversation, 
such as cat, dog, boy, girl, cow, horse, cart, plate, stove, 
will be more easily learned than the short words of 
two or three letters usually found in the first books 
for children — as, at, an, to, in, by, go, for, and, had, 
sad, ban, pat, tan, nor, the, kin, wan — because they 
more clearly perceive their meaning, and readily asso- 
ciate them with familiar objects of which the words 
are names. The length of the word to be taught is 
of less importance than its famiharity; the latter, 
then, should be the guide in selecting words for the 
elementary reading exercises, giving the preference to - 
short words which are familiar. 



290 ELEMENTAKY READING. 

Elocution. — The elocutionary processes of teaching 
reading do not properly fall within the i:)eriod for 
which these lessons are intended; yet a few simple 
suggestions may be useful. 

Begin at once to require the pupils to speak words 
in their natural conversational tone ; but if that man- 
ner be found to be bad, correct it in the conversation, 
and through that in the reading exercise. If the child 
is requested to speak the word cat, see that it utters 
it distinctly and naturally, and so of every other word. 

When words are combined into sentences, if the 
children commence reading with unnatural tones, let 
the teacher ask them to look at her and repeat what 
they said; thus. Look at me; what did you say? 
That is right ; now repeat it once more. Very well ; 
now look at the words, and repeat it in the same way 
again. By such a course, the bawling, drawling, mo- 
notonous, unnatural tones will speedily be broken up. 

It is well for the teacher to read short sentences, 
and require the pupils to rejDeat them after her in 
concert,* subsequently to have each pupil read the 
same alone. Thus it is seen that, to teach reading 
successfully, there must be a living teacher, and that 
teacher must be active in her work. Rules are of 
little use compared with the living example. 



OBJECT LESSONS, 

THEIR NATURE AND DESIGN. 



Lessons on " common things" are quite frequently 
confounded with " object lessons." Some teachers 
who are in the habit of giving occasional instruction 
about the things of e very-day life suppose that they 
are practicing the latter system. This misunderstand- 
ing of the true principles of object-teaching is one of 
the most serious obstacles to its successful introduc- 
tion into schools. Their predominant use is the de- 
velopment of the perceptive faculties and the cultiva- 
tion of habits of accurate observation^ not an exercise 
of the memory. The information which they give is 
a means of training the mental powers rather than 
an end to be attained. Development is the end^ in- 
struction the means for attaining that end. 

This is most emphatically true of the early period 
of training with object lessons; but, as the habits of 
observation become established, the end gradually 
partakes more and more of that of obtaining knowl- 
edge, until these lessons assume the form and uses of 
studies pursued for the end and objects for which 
knowledge itself is acquired — to fit one for the occu- 
pations and duties of life. 



292 NATUEE AND DESIGN OF 

With this view of the subject, let us examine the 
different processes of conducting the exercises in 
" object lessons." One teacher holds before the pu- 
pils some object and describes it, telling its form, 
color, material, where obtained, uses, etc. Then the 
pupils are asked to repeat the leading facts which 
have been thus stated; or, if it is supposed that the 
children know something about the object from hav- 
ing been previously told, the exercise consists, per- 
haps, of questions, such as, "What is this object? Of 
what is it made ? To what kingdom does it belong ? 
Where is it found ?" etc. Neither of these processes 
develop the perceptive faculties ; they merely exercise 
the memory with words, without cultivating habits 
of observation. Telling the child that which it should 
be led to observe is not developing its mind. Load- 
ing the memory with words to be repeated is not 
education. 

Some teachers limit these object lessons to speci- 
mens collected in cabinets of curiosities ; the conse- 
quence is that such lessons become mechanical and 
uninteresting as soon as the novelty of the objects 
themselves has passed. Often these sjDccimens are 
such as are rarely seen by the children, and they fail 
to awaken the desire to examine more common ob- 
jects, and to cultivate those habits of accurate, mi- 
nute, and ready observation which will make the chil- 
dren famihar with and interested in every thing around 
them. 

These lessons should be so conducted as to embrace 
a wider range of objects than those generally present- 



OBJECT LESSONS. 293 

ed, and to include those of tlie house, the shop, the 
garden, the field, the forest, the mine, and the sea- 
shore ; and they should be continued from childhood 
up to the investigations of the man of science. 

Moreover, it is not a sufficient use of the object for 
the teacher simply to hold it uj) before the class, and, 
on the strength of her own observation, proceed to 
state its properties, or even to request the children to 
look at it, and tell what they can see, if it possesses 
properties which must be felt or heard to be under- 
stood. It is the children's own sights and touchy and 
hearing that are to be exercised. To do this success- 
fully, the object itself must not only be seen^ but han- 
dled and heard whenever it is jDossible. 

This is often neglected, because it seems needless 
with a famihar object ; but it is not enough for the 
teacher to hold up a piece of sponge, and squeeze it, to 
show that it is soft and elastic, or to show that lead is 
heavy by handling it herself. All of this should be 
done by the pupils, and they be led to observe and 
describe these qualities, the teacher giving the name 
of such as are not known, after the quality has been 
perceived ; thus the idea justly precedes the name. 

Perhaps we can not jDresent the true use of object 
lessons more clearly and forcibly than by quoting the 
words of Herbert Spencer on "Intellectual Educa- 
tion :" 

" It needs but a glance at the daily life of the in- 
fant to see that all knowledge of things which is gain- 
ed before the acquirement of speech is self-gained. 
* * * In manhood, too, when there are no longer 



294 NATURE AXD DESIGN OF 

teachers at hand, the observations and inferences re- 
quired for daily guidance must be made unhelped, 
and success in life dej^ends upon the accurac)- and 
completeness with which they are made. Is it proba- 
ble, then, that while the process displayed in the evo- 
lution of humanity at large is repeated alike by the 
infant and the man, a reverse process must be follow- 
ed during the period between infancy and manhood ? 
and that, too, even in so sim^Dle a thing as learning 
the properties of objects ? Is it not obvious, on the 
contrary, that one method must be pursued through- 
out ? and is not nature perpetually thrusting this 
method upon us, if we had but the wit to see it and 
the humility to adopt it ? * * * 

"Listen to the eager volubility with which every 
urchin describes any novelty he has been to see, if 
only he can find some one who will attend with any 
interest. Does not the induction lie on the surface ? 
Is it not clear that we must conform our course to 
these intellectual instincts, that we must just systema- 
tize the natural process, that we must listen to all the 
child has to tell us about each object, must induce it 
to say every thing it can think of about such object, 
must occasionally draw its attention to facts it has not 
yet observed, with the view of leading it to notice 
them itself whenever they recur, and must go on by- 
and-by to indicate or supply new series of things for 
alike exhaustive examination? * * * 

" To tell a child this and to shoio it the other, is not 
to teach it how to observe, but to make it a mere re- 
cipient of another's observations — a proceeding which 



OBJECT LESSONS. 295 

weakens rather than strengthens its powers of self-in- 
struction, which deprives it of the pleasure resulting 
from successful activity, which presents this all-attract- 
ive knowledge under the aspect of formal tuition, and 
which thus generates that indifference and even dis- 
gust with which these object lessons are sometimes 
regarded. On the other hand, to pursue the true 
course is simply to guide the intellect to its appropri- 
ate food, * * * and to habituate the mind from the 
beginning to that practice of self-help which it must 
ultimately follow." 

" Children should be led to make their own inves- 
tigations and to draw their own inferences. They 
should be told as httle as possible, and induced to dis- 
cover as much as possible. Humanity has progressed 
solely by self-instruction ; and that, to achieve the best 
results, each mind must progress somewhat after the 
same fashion, is continually proved by the marked 
success of self-made men." 

A very important point to be attended to is the 
adaptation of the lessons to the different stages of ad- 
vancement in the children to whom they are given. 
A child of five years is quite a different being, intel- 
lectually, from one of ten; hence we should not at- 
tempt to lead children to the observation of those 
qualities that require the exercise of faculties which 
are not developed until the period of youth, nor to 
consider a subject which requires a previous training 
to understand, before that training has been given. 

To illustrate this idea more clearly, we will indicate 
the properties of objects that may be presented, in 



296 NATURE AND DESIGN OF 

succession, for observation during the first three years 
of school-life. These divisions will serve as guides to 
the teacher in adapting lessons to the diflerent stages 
of development among her pupils, although she may 
not he able to conform strictly to them. 

The first stage. During this period the pupil may 
be required to distingidsli objects by their oiames^ to 
observe and name tlieir parts ^ to describe their form^ 
size., color., and uses. 

However, /br;?z, color., and size should not be con- 
sidered in these lessons until some ideas had been 
previously developed of such properties. Before that 
has been accomjDlished, the pupil's attention should be 
chiefly directed to more general and obvious points. 
Yet the consideration of these properties need not 
long be postponed, for the elementary ideas of form, 
color., and size may be developed by means of these 
object lessons, if the successive steps be observed as 
previously indicated under these respective divisions. 

Tlie second stage. During this period, which may 
commence at or before the close of the first year of 
school-life, the lessons should embrace the form., col- 
or., size, weight, 77iaterial, qualities, and uses of ob- 
jects, and the simple inquiry, ichere obtained f or, by 
whom made f 

The teacher should here train the pupils to a sys- 
tematic application of the ideas and principles as pre- 
viously developed under the several divisions of Form, 
Color, IST umber. Size, Weight, etc. 

The third stage. During this period, which should 
seldom commence before the beginning of the third 



OBJECT LESSONS. 



297 



year Of school-life, the pupib ,n.j consider, i„ addt 
tion to those of the previous stages, thepcnnt, ofresem- 
blance^n color, materials, formation, and uses, and 
be led to observe by ^hich sense the clvff^rent p^ities 
a>e chseovered. By these exercises they learn to com- 
mence a natural system of classification in knowled<.e 
Of course, the early consideration of these several 
points must be limited to such as are easily perceived 
by the senses; but, as these habits of systematic ob- 
servation become more familiar, the attention will 

r:^ "^''"''^"'^'"'"'''■^^-■*^'^-^ 

the difl^-ent periods of object training, .ve have aimed 
to select such a variety of objects that our sketches 
may readi y suggest to the teacher how all similar ob 
jects should be presented. It would be useless, how- 
ever, for us to attempt to draw out all the lessons for 
a course of even one year, much less for a period of 
wo or three years. It would require severa volumes 
o accomplish this; besides, it is far better for The 

lessons. Those who learn to do this with skill will 
be far more successful than those who confine them 
selves to the sketches prepared by others 

The Jirst series of object lessons, from having for 
th«r aim habrts of observation and description, should 

::radt£Sr"^'^^'^"'^-''^-''^^ 

20, also to "suggesUoMS for wridng sketches" on page 24 



A GRADUATED COURSE OF OBJECT LESSONS. 



FIRST SERIES. 

l!fAMIXG AND DESCEIBI:N'G OBJECTS. 

Properties to he considered. In the lessons of this 
series, the object and its properties may be considered 
as follows, viz. : Observe and name the object and its 
parts y' describe its form ^ size^ color., and uses. 

I. -A Chair. 

Place a chair before the children, and request those 
who think they can tell its name, and point out and 
name its parts, to hold up their hands. Call upon one 
pupil for its name; one to come and point out and 
tell the name of one part ; another to point out and 
name some other part, and so on until all the parts 
have thus been mentioned, as the back, seat, legs, bars, 
upper side of the seat, under side of it, front of the 
chair, top, frame, etc. 

Who can tell me the form and position of these 
parts? [The hands of the pupils are raised as be- 
fore, and only those speak whose names are called.] 
James. " The seat is flat and horizontal." George. 
" It is lower at the back than in the front — it is not 
quite horizontal." Lucy. " The back is slanting." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 299 

Martha. " The horizontal piece at the top of the back 
is flat." Ella. "The bars are horizontal." Mary. 
"The bars are parallel also." "William. "The legs 
are nearly perpendicular." Hiram. " The seat resem- 
bles a square." Charles. " It is narrower at the 
back than in front." Adin. "Its edges are curved." 
Thomas. " The legs and bars are round like a cylin- 
der." Robert. "The legs are tapering — smaller at 
the bottom than at the top." 

Very well done. Now tell me something about its 
size. Eddy. "The chair is about three feet high." 
You may take the tape and measure it. Frank. "The 
seat is about one half of the height of the chair." Su- 
san. " The seat is about an inch and a half in thick- 
ness." Wilson. " The legs are longer and larger than 
the bars." 

Who will name the colors on the chair ? Proceed 
as before, calling upon different pupils, until all the 
colors have been mentioned. 

IsTow let us consider the uses of a chair. Who can 
tell me for what it may be used ? David. " To sit 
on." John. "To stand on when we want to reach up 
high." What is its chief use ? "To sit on." 

What are the uses of its parts ? Ella. " The seat is 
to sit on, and the back to lean against." Arthur. 
" The legs support the chair." Henry. " The cross- 
bars make the chair strong." 

Suppose the chair had no back, would it be as com- 
fortable as it is now ? " No, we could not rest well 
when tired." Why not ? " There would be nothing 
to lean the back aorainst." 



300 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Sui3pose it had no seat, what would be the conse- 
quence ? " There would be nothing to sit ujDon ; it 
would not be of any use." 

Suj)j)ose it had no legs. "The seat would be on 
the floor ; it would be too low to be of use." 

SujDpose it had no bars. "The chair would soon 
fall to pieces." 

How many j^arts are there in this chair ? Of Avhich 
parts are there only one ? " Of the seat and the 
back." How many legs are there ? " Four." Why 
does a chair have four legs instead of two or three ? 
" Because it wiU stand better on four legs than on 
less." How many bars are there ? 

'Now repeat together the names of the parts of the 
chair as I point to them. 

It will be perceived that the teacher simply leads 
the children to observe and describe, and that by the 
fewest possible questions, that they may acquire the 
habit of self-dependence. The interest is kept up by 
the anxiety of each pupil to point out and describe 
some part. There will doubtless be some pupils who 
are slow to observe, or less anxious to participate in 
the exercise than the majority of the class are ; these 
should be encouraged, and called upon to describe the 
simpler parts. 

The preceding sketch of a lesson on a chair will 
serve as a model for lessons on the following objects, 
viz. : table, pail, stool, bench, rake, hoe, gate, door, 
desk, box, basket. 

Each fifth lesson on objects ought to be a review 



OBJECT LESSONS. 301 

of the four j)receclmg ones, that greater freedom in 
description may be attained from familiarity, and also 
to fix the leading points more firmly in the mind. 

II.— A Watch. 

Holding a watch before the children, the teacher 
asks, What is this ? "A watch." Now observe its 
parts, and tell me what you can see. 

Florence. " I see the face." Delia. " The hands." 
Where are the hands ? " On the face." Olivia. " The 
face is white." John. " It has figures on it." Wilhe. 
" It is circular." Very well. What else do you see ? 
Edward. " There is a glass over the face." Walter. 
" There is a rim around the face." What is the use 
of this rim ? " To hold the glass." 

What else can you say about the watch ? " It has 
a case." Henry. " The case will open." Joseph. " It 
has a stem." Porter. " There is a ring in the stem." 
What is the use of the ring ? " To take hold of when 
pulling the watch from the pocket, and to fasten the 
chain to the watch." 

Is there any part of the watch which you do not 
see ? " Yes, we can not see the wheels on the inside." 
What do those wheels do? "Move round." Does 
any part of the watch which you can see move round ? 
" Yes, the hands." Who can tell me what these hands 
are for ? Ella, " To point out the time of day." How 
many hands are there? "Two." Are they both 
alike ? " No ; one is longer than the other." 

You have told me several parts that you could see; 
now is there any way by which you could tell that 



302 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

there is a watch in my hand without seeing it ? " We 
could hear it if it was near to our ears." When you 
hear the watch, what do you say that it does ? " It 
ticks." 

N"ow what is the use of a watch ? " To show us 
what time it is." Is there any thing else that tells us 
the time ? " Yes, a clock." Which is the largest, a 
watch or a clock ? About how large is a watch ? 
"About two inches in diameter, and half an inch 
thick." 

Now repeat the names of all the parts that have 
been mentioned. "Face, hands, figures, glass, rim, 
case, stem, ring, wheels." 

If the children are familiar with common words 
when these lessons are introduced, the names of the 
parts should be jDrinted on the blackboard. 

The following objects may be treated in a manner 
similar to these sketches, viz. : clock, wind-mill, wheel, 
etc. 

III.— A Pin. 

Let each pupil hold a pin, examine it, and tell its 
parts, shape, and use. For the sake of brevity, we 
will omit the names of i3U23ils, and give only the ques- 
tions or remarks by the teacher, and the replies or ob- 
servations of the children. 

Isow tell me what you observe concerning the ob- 
ject in your hands. " It is a pin" — " it has a head 
and a point" — "the head is round" — "the point is 
sharp" — " the part between the head and the point is 
straight." You may call that part the shank. " The 



OBJECT LESSONS. 803 

shank is straight" — " it tapers near the point" — " the 
shank is cyhndrical." What are its uses ? " To keep 
together parts of onr dress" — " the point is sharp, so 
that it can be pushed through the cloth easily" — 
" the head is to push against" — " the head helps to 
keep the j^in in its place." 

Now repeat the parts of the pin. "The head, 
shank, point." 

This lesson will indicate the parts to be considered, 
and the manner of conducting lessons with other ob- 
jects, as needle, awl, gimlet, nail, etc. 

IV.— A Thimble. 

What is this on my finger ? "A thimble." What 
can you say about it ? " The surface is curved" — " it 
is full of little hollows." What is the use of these 
little hollows? "To keep the needle from slipping 
when pushing it through the cloth." You may call 
these little hollows punctures. 

"It tapers a little toward the upper end" — "the 
top is closed" — " the bottom is open" — " it has a rim 
around the bottom" — " it has a border around it, be- 
tween the rim and the punctures" — " it is hollow" — 
" the inside is smooth" — " the outside is rouo-h." 

What is its use ? " To prevent the finger from be- 
ing pricked when sewing." 

Now name the parts. "Surface, punctures, top, 
bottom, rim, border, outside, inside." 

This sketch will suggest how to conduct lessons on 
a cup, a hat, plate, candlestick, button, etc. 



304 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

v.— Review— Chair, Watchj Pin, Thimble. 

To-day we will talk about the objects upon which 
your last four lessons were given. How many can 
remember what those objects were? James, you 
may tell me what was the object for the first lesson. 
" A chair." 

Mary may tell the name of the object for the sec- 
ond lesson. " A watch." 

Henry may tell the name of the object for the third 
lesson. "A pin." 

Susan may name the object for the fourth lesson. 
"A thimble." 

Who can tell us any thing about the chair? Ed- 
ward. "The principal parts of the chair are its seat, 
legs, back, bars." 

Wilham. "The seat and bars are nearly horizontal." 
Charles. "The legs are nearly perpendicular, and 
the back is slanting." 

Martha. " The chair is to sit upon, and the back to 
lean against, to rest us when tired." 

Who can tell us something about the watch ? Jo- 
seph. " It is circular, and has a glass over its face." 
Ella. " It has hands to point out the time." 
Hiram. " The watch ticks." 
Delia. " The face of the watch is white." 
Porter. " There are figures on the face." 
Adin. " It has a rim around it to hold the glass." 
Who can tell us about the pin? George. "The 
pin has a round head and a sharp point." William. 
" The part between the point and head is the shank." 



OBJECT LESSONS. o05 

Horace. "The shank is straight and round like a 
cyUnder." 

Herbert. " The pin is used to fasten on clothes." 

Who will tell us about the thimble ? John. " The 
thimble is worn on the finger when sewing, to pro- 
tect it from injury while pushing the needle through 
the cloth." 

Julius. "-The punctures prevent the needle from 
slipping when pushing it." 

Henry. " The surface of the thimble is curved ; it 
has a toj) which is usually closed ; it has a rim around 
the bottom." 

These reviews may be extended or condensed, as 
the age of the pupils and their familiarity with the 
subject suggests. 

VL— A Key. 

The teacher holds a common key before the chil- 
dren. "A key" — "it has a ring" — "one end is hol- 
low." You may call that end the barrel. " The bar- 
rel is cylindrical" — " there are rings around the bar- 
rel" — " there is a piece on one side of the barrel, near 
the end." You may call that the lip. " The lip has 
notches in it." Call those notches grooves. 

Now can you tell me the uses of the key and its 
parts ? " The key is used to lock and unlock doors, 
drawers, trunks, chests, closets, gates" — " the ring is 
the handle by which the key is turned." [The teach- 
er may show a lock with one side removed, so that 
the action of the lip on the bolt may be observed.] 
What is the use of the lip? "To move the bolt in 
the lock which fastens the door." 



306 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Now name the parts of the key as I point to them. 
"Ring — barrel — hp — groove." 

VII.-A Cart. 

As this is an object which the teacher can not take 
into the school-room, the manner of conducting the 
lesson must necessarily be different from either of the 
preceding ones, unless a model or a picture be shown 
to the pupils. It is well to consider occasionally ob- 
jects that are familiar without their actual presence. 
It happens frequently that many points remain unno- 
ticed in the things which we see every day, and, if 
properly conducted, occasional exercises on this class 
of objects, without their presence, will very materially 
aid in developing habits of careful observation. To 
suggest how such lessons may be conducted, we will 
suppose there is neither a model nor a picture before 
the pupils. 

There is a very familiar object which is often seen 
in the streets of a city and in large villages. It is also 
used on the farm. When seen in the city, there is 
usually a horse attached to it; but when used on the 
farm, it is generally drawn by a pair of oxen. Now 
who can tell me what this object is ? "A cart." 

What parts of the cart can you remember ? 
"Wheels" — "two poles to go each side of the horse." 

You may call the poles shafts. What is the use 
of the shafts ? " To guide the cart while it is drawn" 
— " to hold it in its proper place." 

What other parts of the cart can you mention ? 
" The bottom"—" the box." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 307 

Do all carts have boxes? What are the carts used 
for which have boxes ? " In the city they carry sand, 
brick, coal, etc." 

What is the shape of the wheels ? " Circular." 
In what position are they placed ? " On the edge." 
What holds them in this position ? 

We will talk more about the cart to-morrow. In 
the mean time I wish each pupil to examine a cart, 
and come prepared to tell all about it in the morning. 

A Cart.— Second Exercise. 

What were we talking about at our last lesson? 
" A cart." What parts of a cart did we mention ? 
" Wheels"—" shafts"— " bottom"— " box." 

Who can now tell me any thing more about the 
cart ? " The wheels have spokes" — " there is a rim 
around the ends of the spokes" — " the tire is outside 
of the rim, and holds it in its place." 

Of what material are the rim and tire made ? "The 
rim is made of wood, and the tire of iron." 

What other part have you observed ? " The axle" 
— " the linch-pin"— " the hub." 

Who can tell what part is called the hub? "The 
centre ; the part where the spokes are fastened." Yes, 
that part is called the hub, the hoh, or the nave. 

What is the use of the axle ? " It supports the load, 
and holds the wheels upright." 

What is the use of the spokes ? " The spokes keep 
the rim in its circular form and support the cart." 

What is the use of the wheels ? " To support the 
axle, and to help move the cart by turning round upon 
the axle." 



308 A GRADUATED COUESE OF 

Similar inquiries might be continued until the pupils 
have described all parts of the cart, and told their 
uses. 

The preceding lessons will indicate methods for 
conducting exercises with the following objects, viz. : 
pencil, knife, saw, chisel, 2Jiucers, hatchet, hammer, 
shovel, spade, trowel, stove, candle, boot, shoe, glove, 
stove-pipe, spoon, broom, fork, and various tools used 
by mechanics ; also farming imj^lements and house- 
hold utensils. 



SECOND SERIES. 

DEVELOPIXG IDEAS OF THE QUALITIES OF OBJECTS. 

Properties to he considered. The lessons of this 
series may embrace, in addition to the 7iame., parts, 
form, color, and size, as considered in the first series, 
the weight, material, qualities, and uses of objects ; 
also the simple inquiry, tchere obtained? or hy whom 
made? 

I.— Glass. 

Qualities — TransjDarent and brittle. 

Glass is an appropriate object to select for the first 
lesson in the second series, because the qualities which 
characterize it are so palpable to the senses. Pieces 
of glass should be passed to the children and exam- 
ined by each. By this means each individual in the 
class is called upon to exercise his own powers of ob- 
servation upon the object jDresented, while the teacher 



OBJECT LESSONS. 809 

proceeds to draw out the ideas of the children con- 
cerning it. 

What is the name of this object? "Glass." I 
wish to write the word upon the blackboard ; what 
letter shall I make first ? " G." What next ? " 1." 
Next? "a." Next? "S." Next? "S." Next? 
" You have made the word, and don't want any more 
letters." [Holding up the glass.] What is this? 
" Glass." What is this on the blackboard ? " The 
word glass." 

Now who will tell me something about glass? 
Mary. "We can see through it." Ella. "It will 
break easily." 

Is there any other glass in this room? "Yes, in 
the windows." Why do we put glass in windows? 
" So we can see through." 

Suppose there were no windows in this room, could 
you see what is in it ? " No." What then must be 
in the room to enable you to see while in it ? " Light." 
Then for what other purpose is glass used in windows 
besides for seeing through ? " To let the light in." 

Can you see through the door when it is closed ? 
Can you see through the blackboard ? 

Here is a glass bottle filled with water. Can you 
see through it? "Yes." Then what else can you 
see through besides glass ? " Water." 
- Now I will tell you a word which means can he 
see?i through; it is transparent ; so that when yofi 
hear any one say that any object is transparent^ it 
means that that object can he seen through. What, 
then, may we say of glass ? " Glass is transparent." 



310 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Can you think of any thing* else that is transpa- 
rent ? " "Water." Let me write it ; what letters must 

I use ? " W a t e r." I will now write that long 
word which means can he seen through on the board. 
What is the word ? " Transparent." 

SujDpose I should let this piece of glass fall upon a 
stone, what would be the consequence ? " The glass 
would be broken." 

If I should let this piece of wood fall, would it 
break like the glass? "Xo." 

I will tell you a word that means easily hroTcen; it 
is hrittle. Let me write it on the board. " B r i t- 

I I e," brittle. 

When any one says that glass is hrittle^ what do 
they mean ? " That it is easily broken." 

Kow tell me what are the words upon the board. 
"Glass, water, transparent, brittle." 

What may you say of glass ? " It is transparent 
and hrittUr What does transparent mean ? " That 
you can see through it." What does brittle mean? 
" That it will break easily." For what is glass used ? 

Il.-Slate. 

Quality — Opaque. 

What have I in my hand ? "A slate." Who will 
tell me the names of its parts, and jDoint them out ? 
Henry. " Slate-frame, slate, sides, ends, corners, sur- 
faces." 

How many of each of these parts has it ? Joseph. 
" One frame, two sides, two ends." 

* See Lesson XVIIL, page 131. 



OBJECT LESSONS. - 311 

George. " Four corners, two surfaces." 

What is its shape ? " Oblong." What is the shape 
of its corners ? " Right angles." 

How long is the slate ? How wide is it ? William 
may take the tape and measure it, then tell us how 
long it is. John may measure and tell us how wide 
it is. 

What is its color ? " Dark gray," or " reddish 
dark gray." 

Lift it, and tell me of its weight. " It is heavy." 
Edwin. " It will weigh about a pound." John may 
weigh it. 

Of what are slates made ? Eddy. " Stone and 
wood." Which part is stone ? " That used to mark 
on." Which jDart is wood ? " The frame." 

Are slates used for any thing else besides to mark 
on ? " Yes, for roofs of houses." In cities slate is 
much used for roofs in place of shingles, for they last 
longer, and prevent the roof from taking fire easily. 

Would slate make good windows ? " K'o." Why 
not ? it would not break as easily as glass. " We 
could not see through it." 

But suppose you did not want to see through the 
windows, and should put in slate instead of glass, 
would it answer the jDurpose of a window ? Lucy. 
" No, for it would not let light into the room." Then 
what may we say about slate? "We can not see 
through it, and it does not let light pass through it." 

Now I will give you a word which means can not 
he seen through; it is opaque. Look at me as I print 
it on the blackboard, and name the letters as I make 
them. Opaque, opaque. 



312 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

"When you can see through an object, what do you 
say of it? "It is transparent^ When you can not 
see through an object, what do you say of it ? " It is 
opaque^'' Then opaque means not transparent. 

Who can tell me other objects that are oj^aque? 
Edwin. " Wood." Daniel. " Iron, coal, etc." 

III.— Water. 

Qualities — Liquid, transparent, colorless, tasteless, 
inodorous. 

What is in this tumbler ? " Water." I will now 
print the word on the blackboard — W a t e r. [The 
teacher pours a little of the water upon a piece of 
newspaper or cloth.] What has the water done to 
this paper ? " Made it wet." 

Now observe me. [The teacher pours the water 
out in drops.] Does the water hold together when I 
pour it out little by little ? " No, it forms into drops." 

Here is a little milk ; observe it as I pour it out, 
and tell me whether it holds together or not. " It 
forms m drops, like water." 

I will now tell you a name for any thing that you 
can pour out so as to form it into drops, like water, 
milk, etc. It is called a liquid. 

Now what may you call water and milk? "Liq- 
uids." Observe me as I print the word liquid^ and 
name the letters as I form them. 

Can you mention any other liquids ? " Cider, beer, 
the juice of oranges and lemons." 

Look into this cup of water ; what do you see ? 
" The bottom." Now what do you see ? "A white 
button on the bottom." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 313 

What, then, may you say of water ? " We can see 
through it ; it is transparent." 

Here is a red wafer, a green leaf, a yellow flower, 
and a blue flower ; which of these is like the color of 
water ? " Neither of them." 

I will put the yellow flower in the water; now 
what color is the flower ? " It is yellow still." 

You remember that I told you, when you could see 
through any thing, and the objects at which you look- 
ed did not change their color, the object seen through 
had no color. Now what shall we say of water ? 
" It has no color." 

Very well; you may say water is colorless^ which 
means that it has no color. [Print the word colorless 
as before.] 

Here is some fresh water in this tumbler ; you may 
taste it, and tell me what you observe. " It is cold." 
What taste do you perceive? Has it any taste? 
" No." What, then, may you say of water ? " It 
has no taste." It is tasteless. [Print the word taste- 
less.] 

Smell of the water, and tell me what it smells like. 
" I can not smell it." What, then, may you say of 
the smell of water ? " Water has no smell." 

We say any thing that has a smell has an odor ; if 
it has no smell, it is without odor, or inodorous. 
What, then, can you say of water ? " It is inodor- 
ous." This is a long word, but I will print it on the 
blackboard for you. Name the letters as I make 
them — I nodorOUS, inodorous. 

What does inodorous mean ? " Has no smell." 
O 



314 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

What use have you made of water to-day ? " We 
have washed our hands and faces with it." Suppose 
the water was soHd, like the stone of a slate, could 
you wash with it ? Is a slate liquid ? What quality 
must an object have to be used for washing? "It 
must be a liquid." 

Milk is a liquid; would it be good for washing? 
" No, it would not make us clean." 

Would not beer or cider answer for washing, since 
both are liquids ? " No ; they both have an odor and 
a color, and would not cleanse from dirt." 

For what else do you use water ? " For drinking." 
Yes, water is essential to every person, and God has 
kindly supplied it in great abundance. 

Now let us see what has been learned about water. 

"It is a liquid; it will wet; it is transparent ; it 
is colorless; it is tasteless; it is inodorous; it is very 
useful for icashing and for drinking.'''' 

IV.— Milk. 

Qualities — Opaque, soft, liquid, nutritious. 

What is in this glass ? " Milk." Where do we 
get milk ? " From the cow." 

How do you know that this is milk, and not water ? 
"Because it is white." But I might put chalk into 
water and make it white ; would it become milk 
then? "No." 

Is there not some other way to determine whether 
this is milk or not ? " Yes, by tasting it." 

What kind of taste has it ? " Sweet taste." Does 
it feel Hke water when you take it in your mouth ? 
" No, it is softer." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 315 

When I poured the water out of the cujd little by 
little, how did it fall ? " In drops." Now observe 
me as I pour the milk from this glass little by little. 
"It falls in drops." 

What did we call water when we found that it 
could be poured out so as to form drops ? "A liquid." 
What, then, may we call milk ? "A liquid." 

Can you tell me in what milk is like water? "It 
is a liquid, because it will form into drops." 

[The teacher pours a little milk on a piece of cloth, 
and the children observe that it wets it.] What has 
the milk done to this cloth ? " Wet it." If I should 
pour water on this cloth, what would be the effect ? 
" It would wet it." How is milk like water ? " It 
will make things wet, and will form into drops." 

What do we call those things which make others 
wet and form themselves into drops ? " Liquids." 

What use do we make of milk ? " We drink it." 
Why are little children fed upon milk ? " To make 
them grow." Because milk will make them grow, 
we say it is nourishing. Bread and meat are nour- 
ishing. Food that is nourishing we call nutritious. 
Observe me as I write the word on the blackboard 
— N u t r i t i u s. 

Milk is nourishing, and we call it . Why do 

we say that milk is nutritious f " Because it is nour- 
ishing." 

From what animal do we obtain milk? "From 
the cow." Do you know of any other animal that 
gives milk? "Yes, the goat." 

Now repeat all you know about milk. "Milk 



816 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

comes from the cow and from the goat" — " milk is 
white" — " we can not see through it ; it is opaque" — 
" it tastes sweet" — " it feels soft to the mouth" — 
" milk is a liquid ; it will wet and form into drops" — 
" it is nutritious, and very good for food." 

V. Review— Glass, Slate, Water, Milk. 

I have brought you to-day the four things upon 
which you have had lessons this week, that you may 
look at them again, and tell me what you observe, 
and what you remember that we learned about them. 

William, what do you observe ? "A piece of glass, 
a slate, some water, and some milk," 

John, what can you tell us about the glass ? " It 
is called transparent^ because we can see through it." 

Henry. " It is said to be brittle, because it is easily 
broken." 

Walter. " The slate can not be seen through, so we 
say that it is opaque." 

George. " The slate is a kind of stone." Martha. 
" The frame is made of wood." 

Mary. " Water will wet and form into drops when 
poured out slowly, so we call it a liquid." 

Ella. " Water is transparent ; we can see through it." 
•Lucy. " It has no color, and no taste, and no smell." 

Susan, can you tell us any thing about milk ? " It 
is white and sweet." 

Hiram. " We can not see through milk ; it is opaque." 

Adin. " Milk is a Hquid ; it will form into drops 
and will wet." 

Joseph. " It is good for food ; it is nutritious." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 317 

It is better, in these reviews, for the pupils to tell 
as much as possible about the objects without being 
led by questions, as it forms habits of self-dependence, 
and causes them to rely upon their own observations 
rather than upon those of the teacher and her prompt- 
ing questions. 

VI.— India-rubber. 

Qualities — Elastic, tough, opaque, smooth. 

Show the children a piece of India-rubber, and ask 
its name. Then call upon a child to come and bend 
it, and stretch it before the class ; or, which would be 
better, pass pieces of it to the j^upils, so that each one 
might feel it and stretch it. After calling attention 
to its shape, size, etc., and while stretching it, ask, 
What am I doing with it ? What can you say of its 
shape and size now ? " It is narrower and longer 
than before." When I let go of it, what does it do ? 
" Returns to its shape again." Try it, and see for 
yourselves if it will return to its shape after being 
stretched. 

Now who will tell me something about this piece 
of India-rubber ? Ellen. "It stretches when pulled." 
Kate. " It returns to its place when I let it go." Su- 
san. " It will bend, and also return to its place when I 
let it go." Very well ; now I Avill give you a name 
for this quality : when any thing will stretch on being 
pulled, and return to its place again when let go, it is 
called elastic. So, when it returns to its place again 
after bending, it is said to be elastic. Will rubber 
do both of these? Then what may we say of it? 
"Rubber is elastic." 



318 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Pull tbis rubber string, and tell me if it tears or 
breaks easily. "It does not tear or break easily." 
Then you may say it is tough. [Print tbe word on 
the blackboard as before.] 

I sujDpose you know what tough means when you 
get a piece of beef that is hard to cut, and which you 
can not chew finely. 

Can you see through the rubber ? " Xo." Then 
what may you say of it ? "It is not transparent; it 
is opaque." 

Feel the rubber, and tell me if it is rough. " It is 
smooth." 

Xow who can tell me the uses of India-rubber? 
"To rub out pencil-mark;s on paper" — "to make balls" 
— " to make overshoes" — " to make suspenders." 

VII.— Sponge. 

Qualities — Porous, absorbent, elastic, soft. 

Let the children handle pieces of sponge that have 
been moistened with water and squeezed as nearly 
dry as possible. The teacher may proceed, as in the 
lessons of the first series, to lead the children to ob- 
serve and describe the objects shown them. All who 
think they can answer or say any thing about the ob- 
ject are requested to hold up their hands, but only 
those whose names are called may rejDly, except to 
some general questions where it is evident that all 
know the answer. 

What is the name of this object ? " Sponge." 
Who can tell me something about it ? Alice. " Its 
color is light brown." Julia. " It is full of little 



OBJECT LESSONS. 819 

holes." These holes m the sponge are called ^ore^. 
Can yoii tell me of any common object that you see 
every day which is full of little holes or pores^ like the 
sponge ? " Bread" — " cake." Yes ; and because the 
sponge is full oi pores^ it is said to be porous. Now 
what may you say of bread ? " Bread is porous." 
[Print the word on the blackboard.] 

Let us now try to find out some use for these pores 
in the sponge. Here is a little water on this slate ; I 
will place the sponge in it. What do you observe ? 
" The water has disappeared ; the sponge has sucked 
it up." 

Suppose I should put some bread into a bowl with 
but a little milk in it, what would become of the milk ? 
"The bread would soak it up." I will give you a 
better term than either soaks it up or sucks it up to 
describe what the sponge and the bread do. You 
may say that the bread absorbs the milk. I will print 
the word on the blackboard, that you may see it. 
Now what may you say of the sponge and the water ? 
"The sponge absorbs the water." Very well; and 
because the sponge absorbs water, we say it is an ab- 
sorbent. [Print the word as before.] Who will tell 
me when we may say an object is an absorbetitP 
"When it absorbs water or milk." What does ab- 
sorb mean ? " Drink up, soak up, or suck in." 

Now squeeze the sponge, then let go of it, and tell 
me what you observe. Walter. " It returns to its own 
shape again." Was it as large when you squeezed it 
as it is now ? " No." Then what eifect does squeez- 
ing have upon it ? " Makes it smaller while squeezed." 



32U A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Suppose I should squeeze this piece of silver, would it 
become smaller ? " Xo." What does the sponge do 
when you squeeze it, then let go of it ? " It comes 
back to its own shape again." 

"We say that an object is elastic when it returns to 
its own shape again after being squeezed. Here is a 
bunch of wool ; squeeze this, and tell me whether it 
is elastic. Does it spring back again after being- 
squeezed ? " Yes ; it is elastic." 

How does the sponge feel to the hand ? " Soft." 
For what is sponge used? "For washing." Yes; 
and it is because the sponge is so soft and absorbent 
that it is so useful in washing. It sucks up the water 
so readily, and then lets it run out again so easily when 
squeezed, that it is the most useful substance known 
for washing carriages. 

Now examine the sponge carefully, and tell me 
whether you think it grows or is made. Those of 
you who think it grows may tell n^e where you think 
it is found, on land or in the water. 

Listen to me, and I will tell you something about 
the sf»onge. It is found in the water, growing on the 
rocks. It is believed to be formed by a kind of ani- 
mal which lives in the j)ores, and feeds on the sub- 
stances that are carried into its pores by the water. 
They can not move about, but always remain fastened 
to the rock or stones where they first grow. 

The inhabitants who live near the water w^here 
sponges grow are taught to dive for the sponge when 
they are children, and they learn to remain under the 
water from one to two minutes at a time, pulling the 
sponges from the rocks to bring up to the surface. 



OBJECT LESSONS. 821 

I can not tell you more now, but some day I will 
get a book on natural history and read to you more 
about the sponge, and those who dive into the water 
to gather them. 

Now repeat what you have learned about the 
sponge. " It is porous^ and absorbs water ; it is elas- 
tic and soft ; it grows on rocks under water." 

Vlll.-Whalebone. 

Quality — One kind of elasticity. 

Call one of the children to take a piece of whale- 
bone, and show the others what he can do with it. 
Let him bend it, and then let go of one end, at the 
same time requesting the pupils to observe what hap- 
pens. The teacher may now call upon the pupils to 
tell what they can about the object shown. 

What is this at which you have been looking? 
"Apiece of whalebone." What is its shape ? "That 
of a line." Adin. " That of a straight line, before it 
was bent." What was its shape when bent ? " That 
of a curved line." 

Here is a piece of tape ; bend this, then let go of 
one end, and see what it will do. " It remains bent." 
When you bend the whalebone and let go of one end 
of it, what does it do ? " It goes back to its . own 
shape again." 

What did we call the India-rubber when we bent 
or stretched it, and on being let go it returned to its 
own shape again? "Elastic." Very good. Now, 
since the whalebone returns to its shape again after 
being bent, we will call it elastic. 
O 2 



322 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Now let us see how many things we have examined 
that are elastic; also how the elasticity of these differ 
from each other. Who will describe the elasticity of 
the India-rubber ? 

Wilson. "When we pull India-rubber it will stretch, 
and when let go it returns to its place again." 

Thomas. " When we squeeze a sponge it becomes 
smaller, but when we let go it returns to its shape 
again." 

Robert. " When we bend whalebone and let go, it 
returns to its shape again." 

Why is India-rubber said to be elastic ? "Because, 
after being stretched., it goes back to its shape again 
when left to itself." 

Why is sponge called elastic ? " Because, after 
having been squeezed., it takes its own shape and size 
again when the pressure is removed." 

Why is whalebone said to be elastic ? " Because, 
when bent., it goes back to its place again when left to 
itself" 

Now who will tell me of all of these ? Hiram. " If 
we stretch rubber, or squeeze sponge, or hend whale- 
bone, and let go of them, each will return to its shape 
again." 

Whalebone is obtained from the jaw-bone of the 
whale, the largest animal that inhabits our globe. 

Whalebone is used in umbrellas, in whijDS, etc. 

IX.— Wool. 

Qualities — Soft, absorbent, elastic. 

What have I in my hand ? "Wool." Where does 



OBJECT LESSONS, 323 

wool come from ? " It comes from the sheep's back." 
I will make the word wool. 

James, will yoa describe a sheep? "A sheep has 
four legs, with split hoofs, a romid body, a small head, 
and is about four feet long and three feet in height. 
Its body is covered with wool." 

How is the wool obtained from the sheep ? " It 
is cut off with large shears." When is it cut off? 
" When the weather becomes warm in the beginning 
of summer." 

What is done with the sheep before the wool is 
sheared from them ? " They are taken into a stream 
of water, or into a large tub into which clean water 
runs, and the wool is washed." 

Who can tell me of what use wool is to the sheep ? 
"To keep them warm." Yes, wool is the sheep's 
clothing. 

Can the sheep make its own clothing ? " No." 
Who gives the sheep their clothing ? " God ; He 
makes the wool grow." 

[The teacher passes the wool to the pupils, that 
they may handle it and learn how it feels.] How 
does the wool feel ? " Soft." What more can you 
say of it ? How does it look ? " It is like a bunch 
of fine, crooked hair." 

Feel of it again, and tell me what you observe. 
" It feels dry" — " it feels warm." 

Does it feel warm like the fire ? " ISTo, but it is not 
cold like a piece of glass." Wool is very useful for 
clothing, for it prevents the warmth of the body from 
passing away, and thus it keeps us warm. 



324 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Here is a little water in this basin. I will place 
some wool in it. What do you observe? "The 
water has disapj^eared ; the wool has sucked it up." 

What did we say of the sponge when we found 
that it would suck up water ? " That it is an ahsorb- 
entP Very well ; I will make this word. What may 
we say of wool ? " It is an ahsorhentP Why do we 
call any thing an absorbent ? " Because it sucks up 
water or other liquids." 

Squeeze the wool and then let go of it. What do 
you observe ? " It is elastic.'''' I will make this word 
on the blackboard. 

What is the color of wool ? " White." Did you 
ever see a black sheep ? 

For what is wool used ? " For making cloth for 
coats, i^antaloons, vests, and cloaks ; for flannel, blank- 
ets, shawls, carj)ets, stockings, hats, etc." 

What is done with the wool when cloth is made of 
it? "It is spun into yarn, and the yarn is woven 
into cloth."* 

N"ow who will tell me what has been learned about 
Avool ? John. " It comes from the sheep's back." 
Sarah. " It is sofV' Henry. " It will absorb water." 
Ellen. " It keeps us v:armP Edwin. " It is elastic^ 
Ann. " Wool is ichite.'''' Susan. " Sometimes wool is 

* The extent to which the teacher should lead the pupils to 
consider and describe the processes of manufacture of woolen 
goods must depend upon their age and their familiarity with the 
process employed. In a town where woolen goods are manu- 
factured, it would be proper to talk upon this subject quite mi- 
nutely. 



OBJECT LESSONS. 326 

UackP It is used for making stockings^ flannel^ doth^ 
carpets^ blankets^ etc. 

Xet us read these words about wool which I have 
made on the blackboard. 

X.— Review— India-rubber, Sponge, Whalebone, 
Wool. 

The leading facts learned and the ideas developed 
during the fouj.' preceding lessons should now be re- 
viewed. In conducting these reviews, the teacher 
should lead as little as possible, and depend chiefly 
upon the pupils to tell what they have observed or may 
observe from seeing and handling the objects. The 
reviews previously drawn out will suggest how to 
proceed. 

The eight lessons now given in the Second Series 
will serve as models for conducting exercises on the 
following objects, viz. : cider, beer, vinegar, ink, oil, 
burning fluid, turpentine, alcohol, ice, stone, willow, 
ratan, cotton, flax, hemp, silk, bread, blotting-paper, 
feathers, hair, bristles, etc. 

Some of these objects possess qualities not pre- 
viously described, as the hitter taste of beer, the sour 
taste of vinegar, the odor of turpentine, coldness of 
ice, hardness of stone, flexibility of the willow and 
ratan, fibrous nature of the cotton, flax, hemp, and 
silk, crumbling of the bread, lightness of feathers, etc. 
The teacher should be careful to develop all of these 
ideas as minutely as other qualities have been drawn 
out in the preceding lessons. 



326 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

XI.— Sugar. 

Qualities — Sweet, soluble, fusible. 

Distribute among the pupils small pieces of sugar, 
requesting them to hold and retain it ; then ask them 
to tell what it is, and where and how it is obtained. 
In describing its manufacture, the teacher will proba- 
bly find it necessary to communicate much of the 
knowledge necessary to complete the lesson. In do- 
ing this, pictures should be used to exhibit such oper- 
ations as are not familiar to the pupils. 

Take a piece of the sugar into your mouth and tell 
me how it tastes. " It is siceet.^'' I will make the 
words sugar and sireet. 

Observe me as I place a piece of sugar in this tum- 
bler of water. What do you perceive ? " The sugar 
has dissolved." 

Here is some salt. I will place this in the water. 
" The salt has dissolved." 

Now I will tell you what we say of a substance or 
any object when it can be dissolved in Avater or any 
other liquid : we say that it is soluble. Let me print 
this word on the blackboard ; you may name the let- 
ters as I make them — S 1 U b 1 e. 

What does soluble* mean ? " May be dissolved." 

* The teacher should have a clear perception of the difference 
between soluble and fusible, between the melting or fusion of a 
substance by fire and that of the solution of it in water or any 
other liquid. When a substance becomes a liquid under heat, as 
butter, lard, wax, lead, it is evident that the change is merely a 
change in the condition of the substance itself, without the mix- 



OBJECT LESSONS. 827 

What may you say of sugar and of salt ? " They 
are soluble." 

Look at me agam ; what am I domg ? " Holding 
a piece of sugar over the flame of the candle." What 
do you observe? "The. sugar melts." What effect 
has heat upon sugar ? " It melts it." 

I have another hard word for you to learn. When 
any object will melt by heat, we say it is fusible. I 
will print the word, and you may name the letters 
that I use— F U S i b 1 e. 

Who will tell me what fusible means ? Hiram. 
" May be melted with fire." 

What may you say of sugar ? " It is soluble and 
fusible. '''' 

What is its color ? " White." Is all sugar white ? 
" No, some of it is brown." 

What is the use of sugar ? " To sweeten things." 
What things are sweetened with sugar? "Tea, cof- 
fee, cake, pudding, pie, fruits," etc. 

What have you learned about sugar ? 

ture with it of any thing else, and such a change is usually follow- 
ed by a return to its former solid state on cooling. 

But in the solution or dissolving of any substance, such as sugar, 
salt, or gum, in water or any other liquid, the substance mixes with 
the fluid in which it is dissolved, and its particles are diffused 
throughout the whole of it. Now the original substance can not 
be easily recovered from the solution. 

It is highly important that the teacher should herself under- 
stand clearly all the ideas to be developed in the lesson before she 
attempts to present it to her pupils. 



328 A GKADUATED COURSE OF 

XII.-Glue. 

Qualities — Soluble, fusible, adhesive, tenacious. 

I have in my hand a substance with which some of 
you may not be familiar. You may take it and tell 
me what you observe. 

James. " It is hard and of a brown color." Rosa. 
" It is a little transparent." You may say it is semi- 
trans'parent^ which means partly or half transparent. 
Walter. " It is glue." Very well ; I will make the 
word glue. What letters shall I use ? " G 1 U e." I 
will also make that long word semi-trans}oarent. What 
does transparent mean? "May be seen through." 
Then what does semi-transjDarent mean ? 

If I place this piece of glue in warm water and let 
it remain, it will dissolve. What, then, may we say 
of glue ? " It is soluble in warm water." 

Observe this piece as I hold it over the candle. 
Edwin. " It melts ; glue is fusihW Let me make 
this word — F U S i b 1 e. 

When melted, glue is ready for use. For what is 
glue used ? " For sticking pieces of wood together." 
Because it is so sticky or adhesive when melted, and 
so hard when it cools and dries that it holds the parts 
stuck together with great strength or tenacity^ it is 
very valuable. But, before telling you any more, I 
will make the words adhesive and tenacious^ and you 
may tell me what they mean. 

Adhesive. What does this word mean ? 
" Sticks to." When is glue adhesive f " When 
melted." 



OBJECT LESSONS. 829 

Tenacious. What does this word mean ? 
" Holding fast." When is glue tenacious f " When 
it is cold, dry, and hard." 

Persons who build houses, and those who make 
furniture, and those w^ho bind books, use glue. Now 
who can tell me what classes of persons use glue ? 

George. " Carj^enters." Martha. " Cabinet-makers." 
John. " Book-binders." 

Glue is obtained from the hoofs of animals, but the 
best glue is made from the skins of animals. The 
small cuttings which the currier rejects when he is 
making leather are washed in Hme-water to remove 
the grease, then they are boiled until the soluble parts 
are dissolved. It is then strained, and the liquid is 
boiled until it becomes a jelly. It is then placed in 
the air to cool and harden. 

Now repeat what you have learned about glue. 

XIII.— Coal. 

Qualities — Black, bright, brittle, hard, opaque, in- 
flammable or combustible. 

What is this substance which I hold in my hand ? 
" Coal." I will make the word coal. Is coal made 
by man ? " No, it is dug out of the earth." 

This is called a natural substance., because it was 
not made by man. 

Look at it, and tell me what you observe. Augusta. 
"It is llachr Emma. "It is bright:' The words 
black and bright are made now on the blackboard. 

[The teacher strikes it lightly with a hammer and 
breaks it.] What do you now observe ? " It is easi- 
ly broken ; it is brittle.'''' 



330 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Take a piece of this coal in your bands, and tell me 
how it feels. " It is liarcV Xow look through it. 
"We can not ; it is not transjDarent." "What may you 
say of it ? " It is opaciueP 

Let us see if we have all these words on the black- 
board — Coal^ black, bright, brittle, hard, opaque. 

If I put this coal on the fire, what will take place ? 
"It wiU burn." Suppose I should put wood on the 
fire, what would take place? "The wood would burn 
up." Can you name any other objects that would 
burn in fire ? 

Any thing that burns readily when put in the fire 
is said to be inflammable. This is a long word, but I 
think you will remember it when you see the word, 
and observe that flame is a part of it. You know 
what a flame is. Xow, since coal burns when put in 
the fire, what may M^e say of it ? "It is inflammable^'' 
Yes ; and that is what makes it so useful. It would 
not be good for any thing if it would not burn. 

Who can tell me for what coal is used besides to 
make a fire for cooking our food ? [If in a city, there 
will be some pupils who have seen coal used for pro- 
ducing steam, and perhaps for making gas.] 

If we had no coal, what should we use for our fires ? 
"Wood." Where is wood obtained ? "From trees." 

It would take a great many trees to furnish all the 
wood for the fires in a large city, and it would soon 
become very scarce ; but coal is so abundant in the 
earth that there is no fear that we shall ever get out 
of fuel. 

The places where coal is dug from the earth are 



OBJECT LESSONS. 381 

called coal-mines. The hole or well into which the 
men go to reach the mines is called a shaft. The 
men who work at digging coal and drawing it out of 
the mines are called colliers. I will write these words 
on the blackboard, that you may remember them. 

Now let us see how many can tell something that 
has been learned about coal. " Coal is a natural sub- 
stance" — " it is dug out of the earth" — " it is bright" 
— " it is brittle"—" it is hard"—" it is opaque"—" it 
is inflammable" — " it is used to burn when we cook 
our food, and to warm our rooms in winter" — " it is 
used to make gas for lighting the streets and our 
homes" — " the place where it is dug from the ground 
is called a coal-mine" — " the passage to the mine is 
called a shaft" — " the men who procure the coal are 
colliers." 

XIV.— Lead. 

Qualities — Heavy, bright, dull, hard, easily cut, fu- 
sible, insoluble. 

What is this ? " Lead." Can any of you tell me 
where lead comes from ? Does it come from an ani- 
mal ? Does it come from a plant or a tree? "It 
comes out of the earth." Yes, it is dug from places 
in the earth called lead-mines. It is a mineral. 

You remember about the coal in the ground, which 
is so useful in making fires ; now we find that lead 
comes from the ground also. Thus you see that God 
is kind to store up in the earth so many useful things. 

Take this piece of lead in your hand. What do you 
find ? " It is heavy:' 



682 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Look at it, and tell me what you see. " Part of it 
is bright.'''' What part is bright ? " The part where 
it has just been cut.'''' How does the other part look ? 
" Dull.'''' Yes ; when lead is freshly cut it is bright, 
but when it has been for some time in the air it be- 
comes dull. 

!N'ow feel of the lead. " It is hard.'''' But see — 
what am I doing ? " Cutting it." Yes, and it does 
not make my knife dull. Does it seem hard to cut ? 
"No, it is cut easily." What, then, may you say 
about it ? " It feels hard., but it is easily cut.'''' 

See, I am holding some lead in the flame of the can- 
dle ; what happens ? " It melts" — " it is fusible in 
fire." 

I will put some in this tumbler of water ; does it 
dissolve ? " No." Then what may you say of lead 
in water ? " It is not soluble in water." 

What happened to the lead when I put it in the 
water? "It fell to the bottom." Here is a piece of 
wood ; I will put this in the water. John. " The 
wood swims." What does the lead do ? " The lead 
sinks." Why does the lead sink when the wood 
swims ? " Because the lead is heavy and the wood 
is light." 

Let us see if we have made all these words about 
lead on the blackboard. You may repeat the words 
as I point to them. Lead., lead-mines., heavy., bright., 
dull., cut., hard., fusible^ insoluble. This last word 
means " can not be dissolved in water." 

Is there any child here whose father works in lead ? 
One, two, three hands up. John, what does your 



OBJECT LESSONS. 333 

father do ? " He makes shot." Hemy, what does 
your father do with lead ? " He lays pipes to convey 
water into houses." Then he is called what ? "A 
plumber." Horace, what does your father do with 
lead ? " He is a plumber also." 

Persons who work in lead are called plumbers^ but 
plumbers are generally those who lay lead j)ipes for 
conveying water. 

Can any one think of any other use for lead ? " Bul- 
lets are made of it" — " it is used for sinkers on fish- 
lines and on fish-nets." 

Now let us see how many can tell something about 
lead. 

The next lesson should be a review of the last four 
lessons ; and those will suggest the modes of conduct- 
ing lessons on the following and other objects, so as 
to develop ideas of the several qualities belonging to 
them, viz. : 

Salt — Soluble, saline, granulous, sparkling, opaque. 

Alum — Transparent, soluble, astringent. 

Honey — Sweet, fluid, sticky. 

Gum-Arahic — Semi-transparent, soluble, adhesive. 
Wax — Fusible, sticky, smooth, opaque. 

Putty — Plastic, adhesive, hardening. 

Mortar — Plastic, adhesive, sets and hardens. 

Plaster of Paris — Setting and hardening quickly. 

Chalk — White, soft, friable or easily crumbled, ef- 
fervescent in acids.* 

* This quality may be readily shown by placing a piece of chalk 
in strong vinegar. 



334 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

Iron — Hard, ductile, tenacious, elastic, malleable, 
fusible. 

Iron exceecis in hardness other metals when converted into 
steel. It is more ductile than gold, and may be drawn into a wire 
as fine as human hair. It is the most tenacious of the metals ; a 
wire of one tenth of an inch in diameter will support 550 pounds. 
In the state of steel it is the most elastic of metals. It is also the 
most useful of metals. 

Copper — Heavy, tenacious, sonorous, fusible, elas- 
tic, ductile, malleable, poisonous. 

It is eight times heavier than water. A wire one tenth of an 
inch in thickness will support 300 pounds. It is the most deeply 
sonorous of all the metals. It is more easily melted than iron. 
It is next in elasticity to iron. 

Silver — Heavy, ductile, malleable, tenacious, fusi- 
ble, brilliant, reflective, not affected by common acids. 

Silver is about eleven times heavier than water. It can be 
drawn into the finest wire. It can be reduced to an extreme thin- 
ness. A wii-e of silver one tenth of an inch in thickness will sup- 
port 200 pounds. 

Gold — Heavy, malleable, ductile, tenacious, fusible, 
brilliant. 

Gold is considered a perfect metal, because it does not change 
nor lose any of its weight when melted. It is nineteen times 
heavier than water. It is the most malleable of metals : a piece 
of gold of the size of a pin's head may be hammered out so as to 
cover a space of fifty square inches. It is so ductile that one dol- 
lar can be drawn out into a wu-e that will reach nearly two miles. 
Its tenacity is much less than that of iron. A wire one tenth of 
iin inch in diameter will support 160 pounds. 



OBJECT LESSONS. 336 



THIRD SERIES. 

DEVELOPING IDEAS OF THE MATERIALS, FORMATION, 
AND RESEMBLANCES OF OBJECTS. 

Properties to he considered. The lessons of this se- 
ries, in addition to a more complete consideration of 
the principal parts and qualities embraced in the les- 
sons of the second series, should consider the mate- 
rials., formation.^ and resemblances of objects., and the 
pupils should be led to observe by which sense the 
different qualities are discovered, thus to take the 
first steps toward a natural system of classification of 
knowledge. After the children's observation has been 
called out on an object, some information may be given 
on the natural history or manufacture of it. 

I.— Paper. 

What is this ? " Paper." Take pieces of it and 
then tell me what you observe. William. " It is 
smooth.''''^ Jane. "It is v^hiteP'^ Hold it between 
your thumb and finger; now what do you observe? 
"It is thinP'' Try again. "It is %A^."* Hold it 
up toward the window, and place your finger against 
the side toward the window. " I can see through it 
— it is transparent^ Can you see through it as weU 
as you can through glass ? What is the difference ? 

* Proceed, as in the lessons of the former series, to make the 
words on the blackboard, and also request the children to print 
them on their slates when they return to their seats. 



336 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

" We can see every thing quite clearly through glass, 
but through paper we can only see light, and the out- 
line of objects which are close to it." 

What do we say of glass ? " It is transparent^ 
When we find an object through which Ave can see 
only light, we say it is translucent. Let me explain 
this word. Here is a piece of window-glass ; we can 
see through it clearly, so we say it is transparent. 
Here is a piece of glass which has been ground on 
one side ; it still allows the light to pass through it, 
but we can not see through it clearly, so we say it is 
transluce7it. 

!N'ow mention some objects that are transparent. 
" Glass and water." 

Now mention some that are translucent. " Ground 
glass, horn, thin paper." How do you learn that 
objects are transparent or translucent? "By our 
eyes." 

Now see what you can do with the paper. " I can 
bend it and fold it." Take this handkerchief, and see 
if you can bend and fold it. When any thing is easi- 
ly bent or folded, we say it is pliable. James, can you 
tell us why paper is said to be pliable ? " Because it 
is easily bent and folded." Lucy, will you tell us 
what we say of an object that can be easily bent and 
folded ? " It is pliabW How do you learn that pa- 
per is smooth^ thin., and pliable ? " By our hands — 
by feeling." 

Observe what takes place when I put a piece of this 
paper into the fire. " It burns." Then what may we 
say of it? "It is injlammabW Why is it inflam- 



OBJECT LESSONS. 837 

mable ? " Because it burns readily." Tell me some 
other things that are inflammable. 

Of what use is this kind of paper? "To write 
upon." Yes ; and when you are grown up perhaps 
you will go to live far away from your father and 
mother, and your brothers and sisters ; then it would 
be very pleasant to receive from them a sheet of pa- 
per, with writing over it, telling you all about home ; 
and how happy they would be if you should send 
them a sheet of paper with writing on it, telling them 
what you were doing, and all about the country where 
you lived. Can any one tell me what such a piece of 
paper is called ? "A letter." I hope all of you will 
learn to write letters before you leave school. 

Can any of you tell me where we get paper? "At 
the store." Yes, I knew that before ; but I want to 
be told whether it grows, like a plant, or whether it 
is dug out of the ground, like coal, and lead, and iron. 
How do we get it, since it does not grow and is not 
dug out of the ground ? " It is made." Yes, paper 
is made by man ; now who will tell me what it is 
made out of ? " It is made of r«^5." Yes; the best 
paper is made of li7ien rags. 

Now who will tell me of what li7ien is made ? I 
wiU tell you. Linen is made of the fibrous stem of a 
plant called ^aa?. Do you know what fih^oics means? 
Take this rag and ^duII out some of the threads ; now 
see what the threads are made of. " Very fine, hair- 
like threads." If you should take the stem of a plant 
oi flax and peel ofi" the outside of it, you would find 
it composed of little slender threads, called fibres, 
P 



388 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

When M*e say any thing is fihrous^ we mean that it is 
composed of little threads like the fine hairs or fibres 
which make the threads of this cloth. 

After you have told me all you have found out 
about paper, I will read to you something about its 
manufacture from " Hazen's Popular Technology, or 
Professions and Trades." 

II.— Leather. 

What is this ? " Leather." Take these pieces and 
tell me what you observe. Ella. " One side is black, 
and the other is a hght brown." John. " It is smooth." 
Is it smooth on both sides ? Hiram. " The black side 
is smoother than the brown side." 

What can you do with it? "Bend it — it \&Jlexi- 
hW Why do you say it is flexible ? " Because it 
may be easily bent." 

What could you do with paper besides bending it ? 
" Fold it." Because paper could be both easily bent 
and folded^ we say it is plicd)le. Leather is easily 
bent^ but not easily folded^ so we say it is flexible. 

What else could you do with paper ? " Tear it." 
Try to tear the leather. "We can not tear it." 
Why ? " Because it is tough." When do you say 
a thing is tough? "When it can not easily be 
torn." 

You say this leather is smooth^ flexible, and tough ; 
take it between your thumb and finger, and see if you 
can observe any thing more of it. " It is thin." " It 
is light." 

How did you discover that leather is smooth, flexi- 



OBJECT LESSONS. S39 

ble, tough^ thm^ and light f " By our hands." Yes, 
by feeling it. 

Now shut your eyes. "What is near your face? 
"Leather." Did you see the leather while I held it 
near your nose ? " No." How, then, did you know 
that I held it there ? " We could smell it." What 
may you say, then, of leather ? " It has a smell." Any 
thing that has a smell is said to be odorous. What, 
then, may we say of leather ? " It is odorous." 

How did you find out that leather is odorous? 
" By smelling it." 

How did you find out the color of the leather? 
" By looking at it." 

What qualities did you find out by the hand?' 

For what is leather used? Are you wearing any 
thing made of leather? Why is leather good for 
shoes ? " It is tough." Can you think of any other 
reason why it is good for shoes ? James. " It is flex- 
ible." Emily. " It is thin and light." Paper is thin 
and light; why would it not make good shoes? "It 
would not keep out water." 

Now we have found out a very important reason 
why leather is good for shoes : it keeps the water from 
our feet. Because it will keep out water so well, we 
say it is loater-proof. 

Who will now tell me several reasons why leather 
is good for shoes ? " Because it is tough., flexible., 
thill., light., vKiter-proof., and lasting^ 

Who can tell me where we get leather ? Is it made 
from the fibres of a plant ? Is it dug from the ground? 
"No; it is the skin of animals." Can you mention 



340 A GRADUATED COUESE OF 

some animals, the skins of which are used for leather ? 
" The cow, the calf, the horse, the sheep, the dog, the 
hog." 

Does the skin of either of those animals look Uke 
this leather ? What is the diflerence ? " Their skins 
are covered with hair." What must be done to them 
in making leather ? " The hair must be scrajjed off, 
and the skin tanned." 

Observe this piece of leather when I put it in the 
fire. "It frizzles up." "It has a very impleasant 
smell." Do jou remember what happened when I 
put the paper in the fire ? " It was soon burnt up." 
That, you remember, was made from a vegetable — a 
plant. Leather is an animal substance, and when it 
burns it frizzles up and gives out a disagreeable odor. 
For what is leather used ? 

Now repeat what has been said about leather, 
after which I will read to you a description of its 
manufacture from " Professions and Trades." 

III.— Honey-comb. 

What is this? "A piece of honey-comb." Where 
does it come from ? "A bee-hive." Who placed it 
in the hive ? " The bees made it there." The bees 
have no hands and no tools, yet they can make such 
beautiful comb. How did they learn to make it? 
" God taught them how." Yes, God has taught all 
animals to do whatever is necessary for their comfort. 

Now look at this honey-comb and tell me what you 
observe. " It is full of holes." These holes are called 
cells. . , :.: . ; 



OBJECT LESSONS. 341 

Who will describe the cells f Charles. " The cells 
have six sides, six comers, and a bottom.'''' 

What is the other end of the cell called ? " The 
top." What is there around the top ? " An edge." 
How deep are the cells ? Measure them. " About 
half an inch deej)." How large are they in diameter ? 
" About a quarter of an inch." 

Take a piece of this honey-comb in your hands and 
tell me Avhat you observe. Ellen. "It is sticky." 
Freddy. "It is light." Susan. "It is yellow." 

Hold it up to the light. " I can see light through 
it." Can you see through it as you can through 
glass ? " ISTo." What, then, may you say of the hon- 
ey-comb ? " It is translucent.'''' Why is it said to be 
translucent f " Because we can see the light through 
it, but can not see objects clearly through it." 

What am I doing with the honey-comb ? " Squeez- 
ing it." " You have crushed it." Did it break easi- 
ly ? Then what may w^e say of it ? " Honey-comb 
is brittle." 

Observe it as I hold a piece in the flame of the can- 
dle. " It melts." When does it melt ? " When it 
is heated." 

What use does the bee make of the cells ? " It 
puts honey in them." Where does the bee get the 
honey? " From flowers." Yes ; in summer the bee 
collects honey from flowers, and stores it up in some 
of the cells of the honey-comb. Some of the cells it 
uses for another purpose ; the young bees are kept in 
them, and are fed and watched by the old bees till 
they get their wings, when they begin to work too. 



^■i2 A GRADUATED COURSE OF 

What do we make of honey -comb? "Wax." 
What is done with the comb to make it into wax? 
"It is melted." 

Who can tell me for what wax is nsed ? George. 
" My father is a tailor ; he uses it to wax his thread, 
to keei> it smooth and strong." 

Now rejDeat all you have learned about the honey- 
comb. 

" Honey-comb is made by hees^ who put into it the 
honey which they get from fioicers. It is formed of 
a number of little cells^ each of which has six sides 
and six corners, a bottom, and a to}? with an edge. 
Wax is very light, thin, and sticky ^ its color is light 
yellow ; it is translucent ; it is brittle, and melts when 
heated. Tailors use it to make their thread smooth 
and strong. It is also used for candles." 

IV.— Rose Leaf. 

What is this ? "A leaf" Where are leaves found? 
" On plants and trees." What leaves do cows and 
horses eat ? " Those of grass." What leaves do we 
sometimes eat ? " Those of lettuce, cabbage, and 
spinach." 

I will give you a word by which you can at once 
speak of trees, grass, lettuce, cabbage, etc. It is veg- 
etahles. All plants and trees are called vegetables. 

Where do vegetables come from? "They grow 
out of the ground." Suppose I had a piece of ground, 
and I desired to have some corn grow upon it, what 
must be done to have corn grow there ? " Corn must 
be planted." But suppose I wanted some lettuce to 



OBJECT LESSONS. 343 

grow on a part of the ground, what must be done? 
" Sow some lettuce-seed." 

Where must the corn and lettuce-seed be put be- 
fore it will grow ? " In the earth." Would the corn 
and lettuce be big at once ? 

If I should put an apple-seed in the ground, what 
would happen ? I will tell you. A little white root 
would burst out of it and go down into the ground, 
and a httle green shoot would come up and put out 
some httle leaves. At first it would be very smaU, 
but it would grow so that in a few years it would 
become a large tree and bear apjDles. 

Suppose I should plant a stone in the earth, what 
would grow? -Now I think you know what vegeta- 
ble means. Look at this leaf, and tell me the names 
of its parts. By what part do I hold it? "By the 
stem." 

What is the use of the stem? "To support the 
leaf, and attach it to the plant." 

What other parts of the leaf do you see ? " The 
edge." What do you observe on the edge of the 
leaf? "Little points and notches." Those points are 
called teeth, because they are like the shari>pointed 
teeth of some animals. A leaf that has such points 
on its edge is said to be toothed. 

What may we say of the edge of this leaf? "It is 
toothed:' Why is it said to be toothed ? " Because 
it has points Hke the teeth of some animals." 

Examine this leaf, and tell me what other parts you 
observe. " A line down the middle of it." That line 
is called the 77iiddle rib. See whether it is the same 



344 A GKADUATED CUUKSE OF 

on both sides of the leaf. "It sinks in on one side, 
and stands out on the other." 

Can any one tell me what the hollow line made by 
the jdIow in the field is called ? "A furroioP What 
is the raised part on each side of the furrow called ? 
"TheWc^^e." 

What is the middle rib on this side of the leaf Uke ? 
"Like 2.furrowP What is the middle rib like on the 
other side of the leaf? " Like a ridgeP What, then, 
would be good names for the rib of the leaf on its dif- 
ferent sides ? " The furroio rib on the upper side, 
and the ridge rib on the under side." 

Why do we call one the upper and the other the 
under side? "Because that is the position of the 
leaf when on the tree." 

1^0 w observe the leaf again ; there are other lines 
upon the leaf. Where do these hnes commence, and 
where do they end ? " They commence at the mid- 
dle rib, and end at the edgeP 

These lines are called veins. Li what are they like 
the middle rib? "They sink in like furrows on the 
upper side of the leaf, and rise uj) like ridges on the 
under surface of it." 

Do you observe any thing more in the leaf? "It 
is greenP "The under side is didl, and the ujDper 
side is bright^ 

Feel of it. " It is thitir " It is soft:' Any thing 
more ? "It bends easily ; it can be folded easily." 
"Itis^^^mJ^e." 

What more do you observe when you feel it? "It 
is light and smooth:'' 



OBJECT LESSONS. 845 

What is its shape ? " Like an egg — ovaV^ 
ISTow tell me all that yoii can remember of this les- 
son about the leaf. " The leaf is a vegetable stihstcmce; 
it grows on a stenij it has a toothed edge; it has a 
middle rih^ which is like a furrow on the upper sur- 
face^ and like a ridge on the under side ; it has also 
many vieins^ which are Uke furrows on the upper side^ 
and like ridges on the under side. Its color is green; 
its shape is oval. To the touch it is thin., soft., and 
smooth ; it hends easily; the U23per side is bright., and 
the under side is dulV 

Since there is less danger of erring in the manner 
of conducting the lessons of the third series than with 
those of the first and second^ a fewer number of ex- 
amj)le lessons wall suffice for illustrating the mode of 
drawing them out. It is believed, therefore, that 
those already given here Avill suggest the proper 
course to be pursued with other objects. But the 
teacher should be careful to avoid any stereotyped set 
of questions in conducting these exercises ; let the 
object itself suggest the parts., qualities., materials., 
and uses which should furnish the j)oints for conver- 
sation. 

Again we would remind the teacher not to ask lead- 
ing questions, yet to so conduct the exercises as to 
guide the pupils in their observations and direct their 
attention to the parts or qualities desired. Do not 
tell them wherever they can learn by observation, or 
the use of either their sense of sight., feeling., smell- 
hig., tasting., or hearing. One of the chief uses of this 
P2 



346 A GRADUATED COUESE OF 

course of object lessons is to train the senses in a sys- 
tematic mode of gaining knowledge. 

Those teachers who have carefully observed the 
successive steps in this course of graduated object les- 
sons will now be able to proceed readily with lessons 
on other objects, drawing out the sketches- themselves. 

Many of the objects which were mentioned as suit- 
able for lessons during the first and second series are 
also suitable for tliose of the third, as some points 
connected with their materials, qualities, formation, 
and uses, which the pupils Avould not have been able 
to comprehend at those stages in their develoj)ment, 
may now be brought forward, and the lessons made 
more useful by a more complete and thorough ob- 
servation. 

As a matter of convenience to the teacher, we will 
add a list of objects suitable for lessons at this stage, 
indicating some of the leading points for considera- 
tion ; and, of course, the uses of each object, its forma- 
tion and materials, should also be considered in every 
lesson. It is hoped that this list will be found to con- 
tain an ample variety of subjects to suggest all that 
may be required by the primary teacher. 

Note. — We have purposely omitted animals from these lessons, 
not because they do not form suitable subjects for lessons during 
this period of development, but because we have found it necessaiy 
to prepare a second volume on Object Lessons, in order to develop 
the lessons on Natural History as fully as it is deemed necessary 
for a systematic course of primary training. 



OBJECT LESSONS. 347 

SUBJECTS FOR OBJECT LESSONS. 

Camphor. — Semi-transparent, aromatic, easily crumbling or fria- 
ble, very inflammable, medicinal, volatUe, soluble in spirits. 

Bread. — Porous, absorbent, opaque, edible, wholesome, nutri- 
tious, soft, moist. 

Rice. — Hard, absorbent, nutritious, vegetable. 

Egg. — Oval, white, hard, eatable, opaque, nutritious, shell brittle, 
•thin. 

Ginger. — Pungent, dry, fibrous, vegetable, medicinal, aromatic. 

Pepper. — Hard, pungent, odorous, aromatic, vegetable. 

Nutmeg. — Oval, hard, opaque, vegetable, pungent, aromatic, odor- 
ous. 

Cinnamon. — Agreeable to the taste, aromatic, pungent, brittle, 
medicinal, vegetable. 

Vinegar. — Sour, liquid, odorous, medicinal. 

Ink. — Black, opaque, liquid, fluid, poisonous, useful. 

Bell. — Barrel, hollow, circular, sonorous, metal, clapper, heavy, 
uses, of the different kinds of bells. 

Mirror. — Smooth, bright, reflective, brittle, manufactured. 

Cork. — Light, elastic, compressible, cylindrical, inflammable, veg- 
etable. 

Horn. — Hard, translucent, odorous when burnt, soft when boiled, 
animal substance. 

Ivory. — Hard, white, smooth, solid, durable, animal substance. 

Book. — Outside, inside, edges, corners, binding, stitching, leaves, 
pages, sides, top, bottom, back, title-page, preface, contents, 
margin, type, paper, leather. 

Scissors. — Blades, bows, shanks, rivet, points, edges, curved bows, 
steel, hard, opaque, solid. 

Quill. — Barrel, feather, elastic, transparent, pith, hollow, light, 
animal substance. 

Acorn. — Oval, solid, smooth inside, rough outside, hard, nut, veg- 
etable substance. 

Pine Cone. — Conical, brown, scales, hard, odorous, vegetable sub- 
stance. 



348 A GRADUATED COUESE OF OBJECT LESSORS. 

Muff. — Fur, skin of an animal, soft, warm, flexible, cjlindri- 
eal. 

Starch. — White, soluble in warm water, sticky, vegetable sub- 
stance. 

Brick. — Hard, oblong, sides, ends, comers, color, size, weight, 
mineral, manufactured. 

Tree. — Trunk, roots, limbs, branches, leaves, bark, buds, sap, veg- 
etable. 
Cheese, butter, apple, peach, plum, goosebeny, cherry, orange, 

cun-ant, peas, corn, bird's-nest, earthenware, china, soap, coffee, 

tea, balloon, gun, brush, flannel, buttons. 

USE OF PICTUEES. 

Li this connection it may be well to add that pic- 
tures should be shown, in addition to the objects, 
whenever convenient ; and esjDecially should pictures 
be shown whenever the object for the lesson can not 
be presented for examination. 

An instructive exercise may be had by showing a 
picture to the pupils, requesting them to observe all 
the objects represented in it ; then remove the picture, 
and call upon them to describe it by telling what it 
represents. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS, 



" Simple thoughts of God and Christian virtues, impressed upon 
us in early childhood, are never erased from memory or heart." 



"Teain ujd a child in the way he should go" is not 
only God's command to parents, but it is society's first 
demand on both teacher and jDarent. This training, 
too, is one of the first needs of the child's own nature. 
With it, hapjDiness is within his reach ; without it, not 
only is his own haiDpiness impossible, but he will in- 
terfere with that of others. 

This training should be commenced very early. As • 
soon as emotion is felt it may be biased by education. 
The impressions that adhere longest to us, and are the 
deepest, are those of which we remember not the ori- 
gin—those which we imbibed unconsciously in infan- 
cy. The child's disposition may issue from this pe- 
riod with a strong bent to good. Then there are no 
obstacles to overcome ; nothing to unlearn ; the afiec- 
tions are soft and pliable. If this period pass without 
moral traming, the difficulties are greatly increased, 
the affections take a bent of their own. 

The great means of traming the moral feelings is to 
draw them out into action. A feeling without action 
is mere sentiment ; it does nothing. If we would cul- 



350 DEVELOPMENT OF MOEAL IDEAS. ' > 

tivate kindness, we must show kindness in our deeds ; 
if reverence, we must exhibit the example of rever- 
ence; if we would develop ideas of justice, honesty, 
truthfulness, we must improve the opportunities of 
daily intercourse to exemplify them. 

It will be of little use to tell the child about rever- 
ence, justice, honesty, truthfulness, if these are never 
acted before it ; it is only by acts that the child can 
know them. We have too much abstract teaching 
in morals, as well as in mental education. The law 
of exercise is of universal application to moral and 
mental, as well as in physical training. And there is 
greater room for activity here than most of us at first 
suppose. The daily lessons and occurrences of the 
schoolroom, and the incidents of the 2:)layground, fur- 
nish opportunities for the most effective lessons in 
morals. To seize upon these opportunities, and to im- 
prove them in the right spirit, should be the earnest 
aim of every teacher. 

Let the golden rule be the key-note in moral train- 
ing ; teach the children to do to others as they would 
have others do to them. This jDOsitive teaching is the 
characteristic feature of the morality of the New Tes- 
tament. 

Much of this instruction may be most profitably 
given incidentally, without stated times for moral 
training; yet there are first ideas of God, virtue, right, 
love to others, duty, etc., which should be taken up 
and presented in regulai' succession for the develop- 
ment of simple moral and religious truths as a founda- 
tion for future instruction. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 351 

Children should be taught ideas of God as a hind 
father; of God as the maker of all things; of an 
immortal mind ; of conscience; of truth; of ohe- 
die7ice ; of industry ; oi cleanliness ; oi order. And 
all of this training should be simple, familiar, and free 
from technical phrases and formal teaching ; it should 
be chiefly illustrated by examples and incidents from 
life. " Our Father, who art in heaven," should be the 
key-note of this instruction ; then love, reverence, and 
obedience to Him would have a real significance to 
the young. 

Let the fundamental ideas of religion be thus estab- 
lished in early childhood, and they will shine out clear- 
ly in future years, an anchor of rescue to the soul when 
happiness and life seem about to be w^recked forever. 
Simple moral truths thus early implanted in the heart 
have rescued many a noble youth from the whirlpool 
of corruption, when all other lessons of wisdom had 
been washed away by the waves of passion. 

A few lessons and subjects for lessons will suggest 
what course may be pursued here. 



lesso:n^ I. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF GOD AS A KIND FATHEE. 

I wish to talk with you, children, about those you 
love. Tell me (addressing each pupil individually) 
whom you love. Why do you love your mother? 
Why do you love your father? your sister? your 



352 DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 

brother? "What did your mother do for yon before 
you came to school this morning ? What will she do 
when you go home ? If you are sick, or any one hurts 
you, to whom do you go and tell your trouble ? Who 
is pleased to hear that you have been a good child? 
Who works to get money to buy your clothes and 
food for you to eat ? 

In this manner, by familiar conversation, the teach- 
er should lead the children to talk freely upon the dif- 
ferent acts which show the love of their friends, and 
endeavor to call out their warmest feelings of love 
and gratitude in return. 

Why do your parents thus feed and clothe you, and 
watch over you when you are sick, and kiss you? 
Yes, because they love you. All of you have some 
kind friends who love and care for you. 

Now, children, hsten very attentively to what I 
say, and I will tell you about a Friend that you all 
have — one who is kind to all of you — one who loves 
you better than your father or your mother does — one 
who takes care of you at all times — one who watches 
over you when you are asleep as well as when you 
are awake ; for he never sleeps — one who is ready to 
give you all things you ask him for. Do any of you 
know who it is that I mean? This good friend is 
God. You can not see him, but he always sees you, 
and knows all about you. He tells us to call him 
Father because he loves us as a father. He is in 
heaven — he is our Father in heaven. 

Xow tell me what kind, good Friend we all have ? 
What does he tell us to call him ? Why does he tell 



DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. S6S 

US to call him Father ? Who is this good Friend ? 
Where is he ? What does he do for us ? 

The children may now be required to repeat, God 
is our Father m heaven. He loves us, and takes care 
of us, and is ahcays doing us good. 

The teacher should aim to impress the children with 
a feeling of reverential love to God. This love may 
be awakened by bringing the affection to their parents 
into lively exercise, and then directing it to their 
heavenly Father; their reverence may be awakened 
by making them feel that God is far above us in 
heaven; though invisible to our eyes, that he still 
cares for and watches over us day and night — that he 
is our heavenly Father. Much of the effect of these 
lessons will depend upon the manner and feeling with 
which they are given. 



lesso:n^ II. 

TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OP GOD AS THE MAKER OP 
ALL THINGS., 

Let US now talk about making different things, chil- 
dren. Who made your shoes for you ? Who made 
your dress? Could things make themselves? No, 
it would be very silly to think they could. Who 
made the bread you eat ? Could the bread make it- 
self? Other questions should be asked, leading the 
children to see that things must have a maker, and 
that they could not make themselves. 



354 DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 

Can your father make any thing ? Here allo-w the 
children to talk about what their different fathers can 
do. The art of the teacher is first to call out the mind 
and heart into activity, and then to direct the thoughts 
and feelings. 

You can tell me who made your shoes, your clothes, 
and the bread you eat, but I want to talk about some- 
thing much more beautiful than these, and see if you 
can find out who made them. You have all seen the 
sun. How brightly it shines ! It warms us and gives 
us light. Can any of you tell me who made this beau- 
tiful sun? It was God who made the sun to warm 
us and oive us light and heat. What did God make ? 
Why did he make the sun? What did I tell you 
about God the other day ? All of you may repeat it 
together. 

" God is our Father in heaven ; he loves us, and 
takes care of us, and is always doing us good." 

What has God made ? " God made the beautiful 
sun that warms us and gives us light." If there were 
no sun you could not see. It would also be cold, and 
nothing would grow. God is good, then, to give us 
the sun. Who made the sun ? For w^hose good has 
God made the sun ? What good is it to us ? It gives 
us light and warmth, and causes the grain to grow. 

God makes all the trees, and plants, and flowers 
grow ; he made all the animals and birds, and he made 
us also. Now let us think what he has given us. 
How do you know what is in this room ? " We can 
see the things." What do you see with? "Our 
• eyes." Who gave you eyes ? 



DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 355 

How do you know I am talking to you ? " We 
can hear you." With what do you hear? "With 
our ears." Who gave you ears ? 

How do you know that fur is soft and iron hard ? 
" By feehng them." Who gave you feehng ? 

How do you know that sugar is sweet and lemon 
sour ? " By tasting them." Who gave you taste ? 

How do you know that the rose has a pleasant 
odor ? " By smelling it." Who gave you smell ? 

Now all these things give you pleasure ; it is pleas- 
ant to see, and hear, and feel, and taste, and smell ; 
and these things should make you happy, and make 
you love God for giving you so many senses to add 
to your happiness. 



LESSON HI. 



Have dogs, and horses, and cows bodies? Yes, 
God gave them bodies. Have they bones, and flesh, 
and blood, and skin ? Yes, all of these animals have 
bodies as well as you. Are their bodies like yours ? 

How many legs have you? How many legs has. 

* In a little volume entitled "Peep of Day," published by the 
American Tract Society, ideas of the body, of God as a father, and 
of the soul, are admirably drawn out in simple illustrations for 
children. We are chiefly indebted to that volume for this lesson 
on the soul. We can not do a better service in illustrating how to 
proceed in moral training than by commending that book to teach- 
ers and parents. 



356 DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 

the dog ? Has the dog arms ? Has the dog hands ? 
No, the dog has legs instead of arms. Yom- skin is 
smooth, but the dog is covered with hair. 

Is the cat's body like yours ? Is the chicken's body 
hke yours ? How many legs has the chicken ? Has 
the chicken feet like yours ? . Have you feathers on 
your skin ? Have you wings ? Is your mouth like 
the chicken's beak ? Has the chicken any teeth ? 

No, the chicken's body is not at all like yours ; yet 
the chicken has a body, for it has flesh, and bones, and 
blood, and skin. 

Has a fly a body ? Yes, it has a black body, and 
six black legs, and two wings, like glass. 

Who gave bodies to dogs, horses, cows, chickens, 
and flies ? Who keeps them alive ? 

Can a dog or a horse thank God ? No ; dogs, and 
horses, and cows, and chickens can not thank God; 
they can not think of God. They never heard of 
God. They can not understand about God. Why 
can they not understand about God? Because they 
have no souls, or minds, like yours. Your soul can 
think of God, and thank him for all that he does for 
you. It knows right and wrong. 

Have you a soul? Yes, in your body there is a 
sold, or a mind, which will never die. When God 
made your body he jDlaced your soul in it. When 
God made the dogs and horses he put no souls in 
their bodies, and they can not think of God. 

Can I see your soul ? No, I can not see it. No 
one can see it but God. He knows what you are 
thinking now. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 857 

Which is the best part, your body or your soul ? 
Your soul is a great deal the best. Your body can 
die, but your soul can not die. 

Your body is made of dust. God made the dust 
into flesh, and bones, and blood. Your soul is made 
of the breath of God. 

Some day the dog will die, and its body will be 
thrown away. The dog will be quite gone when its 
body is dead. But when your body dies your soul 
will still live ; it will go back to God, who gave it. 
Your body will decay, and turn to dust again ; but 
your soul will live forever ; it will never die. 

It is your soul that thinks ; if we wish to make any 
thing, we can think how to make it, and then use the 
tools to make it. If we want more tools, we can 
make them too. Birds can build nests, but they can 
not use tools, nor make any thing excejDt what God 
taught them to do. Animals can learn a few things, 
but children can learn a great many things. 

In a similar manner should the teacher proceed to 
develop ideas of right and wrong, and of a conscience. 
Here ample illustrations will occur to exhibit what is 
meant by right and wrong ; and the pupils should fre- 
quently be called upon to decide in simple cases which 
is the one and which the other. A little volume by 
Jacob Abbott, " Learning about Right and Wrong," 
will be useful here. 

Illustrate the unkindness of calling names, and of 
mocking the aged or infirm ; of pmching and teasing 
each other. 



858 DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL IDEAS. 

Truth, honesty, kindness, obedience, industry, cru- 
elty to animals, cleanliness, order, punctuality, self- 
control, gentleness, etc., should all be explained, and 
the children taught to distinguish them. 

Finally, take the examples of the Great Teacher as 
a model. Observe how he selected famihar scenes and 
objects to illustrate his truths. Study his methods, 
seek his guidance, accept his promises, and success 
must be the crown. 



APPAEATUS DESIRABLE IN OBJECT 
TEACHING. 

For General Use. — Blackboards, with white and colored 
Crayons ; and Slate and Pencil for each pupil, 

_ For Elementary Reading.— Letter and Word Cards, Read- 
ing Charts, and Primary Readers. 

For Form.— Chart of Lines and Forms ; Box of Forms and 
Solids ; Gonigraph ; Laths. 

For Color.— Chart of Colors ; colored Cards ; colored Cray- 
ons ; Box of Water Colors ; Glass Prism ; Worsteds, Ribbons, and 
Paper of various Colors. 

For Number.— Numeral Frame ; Buttons, Beans, and Peb- 
bles. A shelf, of about one foot in width, should be arranged 
across one end of the room. Let four inches of the back part of 
the shelf be divided into compartments of four inches wide by eight 
inches long, and about one inch in depth. Into each alternate 
box place beans and pebbles. When a class is to be exercised in 
the first ideas of number, let them stand in front of the shelf, each 
occupying sixteen inches of space, and using a box of beans and 
one of pebbles while adding, subtracting, multiplying, etc. 

^ For Size and " the Tables."— Foot Rule ; Yard-stick ; Tape 
Measure; Gill, Pint, Quart, Gallon, Peck, and half Bushel Meas- 
ures ; Squares of Pasteboard or thick Paper one inch, one foot, 
and one yard ; pieces of Twine, Cord, Rope, Cable ; pieces of Wire 
of >;anous sizes; Shot, Bullet, Grape, Ball; Grains of Sand, Grav- 
el, Pebble, and Stone ; Sticks and Strings of different lengths ; 
Paper, Cloth, and Boards of different thicknesses ; strips of Paper 
Ribbon, etc., of different widths ; small and large Bags, Boxes, etc! 

For "Weight.— A pair of Scales, with two i oz., eight 1 oz., 
four 4 oz., two 8 oz., one each of 1 lb. and 2 lb. weights ; BaUs 
or Cubes of Cork, Wood, Lead, Lon ; Bags of Feathers, Cotton, 
Wool, Beans, Oats, Pebbles, Shot. 

For Sound.— Chart of Elementary Sounds ; Bells, Flute, Tri- 
angle, etc. ' 



360 APPARATUS DESIRABLE IN 

For Place. — Outline Maps of School District, Village or City, 
Town, County, State; Pictures and Maps of Di\^sions of Land 
and Water, as Island, Isthmus, Cape, Bay, etc. 

For Object Lessons. — Articles used in domestic economy, as 
Cup and Saucer, Spoon, Knife and Fork, etc. 

Articles used in difterent trades, as Trowel, Shovel, Hoe, Eake, 
Hammer, and Nails of various kinds and sizes. Saw, Gimlet, Au- 
ger, Chisel, Plane, Needle, Pins, Scissors, Pincers, Awl, Painter's 
Brush, etc. 

Textile fabrics, as Cotton, Linen, Woolen, Silk, in their differ- 
ent stages from the raw materials to thread and cloth. 

Vegetable products, as pieces of different kinds of Wood, Grains, 
Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Nuts. 

Animal products, as Fur, Feathers, Leather, Whalebone, Ivory, 
Shells, etc. 

Minerals, as Coal, Slate, Marble, Lime, Iron, Lead, Copper, 
Tin, etc. 

Such a collection could readily be made by imnting the aid of 
pupils and their parents. It should consist of the smallest and 
cheapest articles of each class. Such a museum should be kept in 
a separate room, or a large closet to which the pupils have no ac- 
cess. The objects should not be placed where the pupils can see 
them at will, lest they become so common to the eyes of the chil- 
dren as to detract from their interest when used in a lesson. There 
is a temptation to overuse objects by frequent exhibitions of them, 
and this sometimes results in a distaste among the children for the 
most valuable collection. The true method for the use of any col- 
lection of objects or apparatus is to use them only when needed 
for an illustration, or to form the topic of a lesson ; at other times 
they should not be exposed to the eyes of the children. 

Pictm-es or charts are very important accompaniments of ob- 
jects. Those illustrating Natural History, men, quadrupeds, 
birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, trees, plants ; economical uses of 
animals ; sources of manufacture ; sources of vegetable food ; 
sources of medicines; poisonous plants, etc., are of great assist- 
ance in communicating instruction on these subjects. 

These charts and illustrations should not be suspended on the 
walls of the schoolroom until they have been used for lessons. As 
far as possible, they should be new to the children when first em- 
ployed in illustrating lessons. After they have been made symbols 
by having insti-uction attached to them, they may be left in view 
of the children until they become familiar with them. 

It is appropriate to place upon the walls of the schoolroom mot- 
toes, and pictures representing beautiful scenery, and subjects in- 
teresting to children, not designed for lessons. It gives a cheerful 
aspect to the room, and improves the taste of the pupils, 



OBJECT TEACHING. 361 

Teacher's Library. — The teacher should be provided with a 
library of works on teaching and education, and books of reference. 
A small sum thus invested by the Board of Education or Trus- 
tees in a permanent library for the teachers would amply repay it- 
self in the general improvement of the school. There is as much 
necessity for the teacher to have a library relating to his profession, 
and books of reference, as for the physician, or lawyer, or minis- 
ter to have libraries pertaining to their professions. The follow- 
ing would form a suitable list of 

BOOKS OF KEFERENCE FOR PRIMARY TEACHERS. 

[Works indicated thus * are published in England.] 

Northend's Teacher's Assistant. 

Edgeworth's Practical Education. 

Dr. Hooker's Child's Book of Nature ; Child's Book of Common 

Things; Primary Geography. 
Hill's First Lessons in Geometry. 
Brande's Encyclopedia of Science, Literature, and Art. 
Hazen's Professions and Trades. 
Evenings at Home. 
Peep of Day ; Line upon Line. 
Reading without Tears. 
Cowdery's Moral Lessons. 
Sedgwick's Morals of Manners. 
Mudie's Observation of Nature. 
Uncle Philip's American Forest; Natural History. 
Prof. Rennie's Natural History of Insects ; Quadrupeds ; Birds. 
Mayhew's Wonders of Science. 

" Peasant Boy Philosopher. 
Wells's Science of Common Things. 
Gray's How Plants Grow. 
Abbott's Learning to Think; Learning to Talk; Learning to 

Read; Learning about Common Things; Learning about 

Right and Wrong. 
Barnard's Object Teaching. 
Exercises on the Improvement of the Senses.* 
The Observing Eye.* 
Arithmetic for Young Children.* 
Geography for Young Children.* 
Information on Common Objects.* 
Mayo's Lessons on Objects.* 
Hints and Helps.* Bv Rev. Wm. Short. 



362 BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 

PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY FOR TEACHERS. 

[AYorks indicated thus * are published in England.] 
Barnard's American Journal of Education. 10 vols. 

[The papers contained in the two following volumes are in- 
cluded in the above Journal of Education.] 

American Contributions to the Philosophy and Practice of 
Education. By Professor William Russell ; Rev. Dr. Hill, 
President of Antioch College ; Rev. Dr. Huntingdon ; Gid- 
eon F. Thayer, late Principal of Chauncey Hall School; 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Bm-gess, and others. 

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism, with Sketches of the Educa- 
tional Views of other Swiss Educators. 

Barnard's National Education in Europe. 
Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching. 
Holbrook's Nonnal Methods. 
Northend's Teacher and Parent. 
Abbott's Teacher. 
Mayhew's Popular Education. 
The School and the Schoolmaster. 
Palmer's Teacher's Manual. 

Ogden's Science of Education and Art of Teaching. 
Spencer's Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical. 
Tate's Philosophy of Education. * 
Stow's Training System of Education.* 
Wilderspin's Education for the Young;* 
Currie's Early Infant Education.* 
Young's Infant-School Teacher's Manual.* 
Chambers's Infant Education.* 

Mayo's Model Lessons; Manual of Elementary Instruction; In- 
fant Education. * 



THE END, 



Books for Schools and Colleges 

PUBUSUED BY 

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Alford's Greek Testament. The Greek Testament : with a Crit- 
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i2i,mi?sheep^5'*i^t?'^P°'^'^°° ^'^ ^' ""^'^^^^ ^^ teachers. 

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tra,^5oS' ^"""P^'^ ^^*^^ Grammar, Abridged. 12mo, Sheep ex- 

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Anthon's Cicero de Senectute. The De Senectute, De Amici- 

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With English Notes, <S:c. 12mo, Sheep extra, $1 00. 

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» ±juun,s 



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Greek Concordance of the New Testament. The Englishman's 
Greek Concordance of the New Testament ; being an Attempt at a Verbal Con- 
nection between the Greek and the English Texts : including a Concordance to 
the Proper Names, with Indexes, Greek-English and English-Greek. Svo, Mus- 
lin, $3 50 ; Sheep, $4 00. 

Greek-English and English-Greek Lexicon, for the use of Schools 
and Academies. By Pi-of. Henet Deislek, of Columbia College, Editor of '■'Lid- 
deU and Scott's Greek Lexicon." Small 4to. {In Press.) 

Griscom's Animal Mechanism and Physiology. Illustrations. 

ISmo, Muslin, 45 cents. 

Hackley's Algebra. School and College Edition. Svo, Sheep 
extra, $1 50. A School Edition. Svo, Muslin, $1 00. 

Hackley's Geometry. Svo, Sheep extra, 75 cents. 

Hale's History of the United States. 2 vols. ISmo, Muslin, 90 

C3nts. 

Hamilton's (Sir William) Philosophy. With an Introductory 
Essay by Robert Tuenbull, D.D. Svo, Muslin, $1 50. 

Harper's Greek and Latin Texts. Cheap and Accurate Editions 
of the Classics for the use of Schools and Students. Superior in mechanical execu- 
tion to other editions, and more convenient in form. ISmo, Flexible Cloth Bind- 
ing, 40 cants a volume. Cjisae Veegilitjs Hoeatics. — Ciceeo de Semec- 

TUTE and De Amicitia — Lucretius. — ^Eschylus. — Eueipides, 3 vols. — Heeod- 
OTue, 2 vols Thucydides, 2 vols. 

Harper's New Classical Library. Literal Translations of the 
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ing volumes are now ready: C^esae. — Viegil. — Horace. — Sallust Cicero's 

Oeatioxs— Cicero's Offices, &c.— Ciceeo on Oeatoey anb Orators.— Taci- 
tus, 2 vols — Terence. — Juvenal — Xenophon. — Homer' s Iliad Homer's 

Odyssey — Thucydides — Herodotus Eueipides, 2 vols Sophocles ^s- 

CHYLU8. — Demosthenes, 2 vols. 



6 Harper ^- Brothers' Books for Schools and Colleges. 

Harper's School History. Narrative of the General Course of 
History, from the Earliest Periods to the Establishment of the American Consti- 
tution, Prepared with Questions for the use of Schools, and illustrated vrith 150 
Maps and Engravings. Square limo, Muslin, $1 '25; Sheep, $1 3S. 

Harrison's Latin Grammar. An Exposition of some of the Laws 
of the Latin Grammar. By Gesxee Haeeisox, M.D., Professor of Ancient Lan- 
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Haswell's Mensuration. For Tuition and Reference, containing 
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< 'onic Sections, Centres of Gravity, &c. To which is added. Tables of the Areas 
of Circular Segments, Sines of a Circle, Circular and Semi-elUptical Arcs, &c., 
&c., (to. By C. H. Haswzll, Marine Engineer. l'2mo, Sheep, 75 cents. 

Henry's History of Philosophy. Epitome of the History of Phi- 
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Herschell's Natural Philosophy. 12mo, Muslin, 60 cents. 

Hooker's Child's Book of Nature. The Child's Book of Nature, 

for the use of Families and Schools; intended to aid ilothcrs and Teachers in 
training Children in the Observation of Nature. In Three Parts. Part I. Plants. 
— Part II. Animals. — Part HI. Air. AVater, Heat, Light, &c. By Worthington 
Hooker, M.D., Yale College. Illustrated by AVood-cuts. The Three Parts com- 
plete in one vol. Small 4to, Muslin, $1 '25 ; Separately, Muslin, 50 cents each. 

Hooker's Natural History. For the use of Schools and Families. 
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Hooker's Science for the People. An Elementary- Work on Nat- 
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Kane's Chemistry. With Additions and Corrections. By John 
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extra, $1 75. 

Lee's Elements of Geology. Engranngs. 18mo, Half Sheep, 
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Lewis's Platonic Theology. Plato against the Atheists ; or, The 
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Theologv, e.-peciallv as comp.ired with the Holy Scriptures. By Tatlee Lewis, 
LL.D. l'2mo. Muslin, $1 50. 

Liddell's School History of Rome. {See Student's Historical Text- 
Book i.) 

Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Based on the Ger- 
man Work of Francis Passow. AVith Correction^ and Addition?, and the Inser- 
tion, in Alphabetical Order, of the Proper Names occurring in the Principal Greek 
Author-, by Professor Hei<ey Deisslek, MA., Columbia College, N. Y. Koyal 
Svo, Sheep" extra, $5 00. 

Loomis's Treatise on Arithmetic, A Treatise on Arithmetic, 
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Loomis's Elements of Algebra. Elements of Algebra. Designed 
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Loomis's Treatise on Algebra. A Treatise on Algebra. Svo, 
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The Trinnnometni and Tables, bound separately. The Trigonometry, $1 00 ; 
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Harper Sf Brothers' Books for Schools and 

Loomis's Elements of Analytical Geometry. Elements of Ana- 
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Loomis's Elements of Natural Philosophy. Elements of Natural 
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Loomis's Recent Progress of Astronomy, especially in the United 

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Lowry's Universal Atlas. Erom the most Eecent Authorities. 

4to, Half Roan, $5 00. 

M'Clintock's Eirst Book in Latin. Comprising Grammar, Exer- 
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With Summaries of Etymology and Syntax. By Rev. J. M'Clintock, D.D., 
LL.D., President of Troy University, and Rev. Geo. R. Ckooks, D.D., late Adjunct 
Professor of Languages in Dickinson College. 12mo, Sheep extra, 75 cents. 

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By Abeahaji Mills, A.M. 2 vols. Svo, Muslin, $3 50; Half Calf, $5 50. 

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Noel and Chapsal's French Grammar. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents. 

Olmsted's Astronomy. Engravings. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents. 

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with Additions. 12mo, Sheep extra, $1 00. 



Willson's 
School and Family Readers. 



A Series of School and Family Readers, aiming at the highest de- 
gree of Usefulness, and splendidly Illustrated. Consisting of a 
Primer and Seven Eeaders. By Marcius Willson. The 
Primer, and the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Readers 
are now ready. 

The leading objects aimed at on the part of the author have been to constnict a 
Series of Readers that shall not only present the very best means and methods of 
teaching Readi>-g as an Aet, but which shall also contain a large amount of Use- 
ful A>T) Enteetalntng Knowt-edge. 

The Primer and First and Second Eeadei's mainly aim at the attainment of the 
Jirst object by laying the foundation of correct Habits of Reading at the verij be- 
ginning of the pupil's course, while the more advanced Readers, still keeping rhet- 
orical instruction in view, especially aim to x>02iu1arize^ to the capacities of chil- 
dren, the " Higher English Branches" of study, so that some useful knoidedge of 
the various departments of Nattteal Histoey and Natiteal Science may be ob- 
tained by all tlie pupils in our schools. 

The Leading Points of Merit claimed for these 
Readers are: 

1st, They present an unusual Vartetij in matter and manner, and will prove ex- 
ceedingly rNTEEESTLNG to Children. 

2d. They will secure the highest degree of practtcaZ Insteuction in the Aet 
OF Readln'g. 

St?. They will impart a great amount of Useful Infoemation, wliich, in no 
other way., can be brought before the great mass of Children in our Schools. 

Ath. In Illustrations, and in Paper, Printing, and durability of Binding^ they 
greatly excel other Readers, while the Peices aee extbemely low. 

THE PRIMER (Introductory), 48 pages, Large 12mo, 
Price 15 cents. 
Beginning with the Alphabet, extends to words of four letters. The conversa- 
tional style is adopted to a considerable extent, and marks are given to denote the 
proper inflections, that the child, aided by the teacher, may begin to read natur- 
ally, and thus avoid those bad habits which are so difficult of correction. 

WILLSON'S FIRST READER. 84 Pages, Large 12mo, 
Price 20 cents. 
Beginning with easy words of four letters, extends to easy words of six letters, 
and a few easy words of two and three syllables. In this Reader, also, the con- 
versational style is frequently introduced, and the system of inflections is con- 
tinued. 

WILLSON'S SECONT) READER, 156 Pages, Large 12mo, 

Price 30 cents. 

Is divided into Seven Parts, each preceded by one or more Elocutionary Rules, 

designed for the use of the Teacher only., and to enforce upon him the importano ■ 

of requiring pupils to read as directed by the inflection?. Superior illustrative en- 

gi-avings are made the mhjects of a large number of th-- R:^n<1ing L&vons. 



WiUso7i's School and Family Readers. 

WILLSON'S THIRD READER. 264 Pages, Large 12mo, 
. Price 50 cents. 

Contains, first, a brief synopsis of the " Elements of Elocution." Part I., " Sto- 
ries from the Bible." Part U., "Moral Lessons." Part III. takes up the fir^t 
great division of Animal Life, the '•'■Mammalia,^'' mostly Quadrupeds. This por- 
tion is made exceedingly interesting, and the illustrations are unsurpassed in any 
work on Natural History. Poetical and prose selections give variety to the Les- 
sons. Part IV., "Miscellaneous." 

WILLSON'S FOURTH READER. 360 Pages, Large 12mo, 
Price 66 cents. 

Contains, after the ''Elements of Elocution," Part I., "Human Physiology and 
Health." Part n. resumes the subject of Animal Life in the division which treats 
of "Ornithology, or Bieds." The same as with Quadrupeds, the leading species 
of the several Classes or Orders of Birds are grouped in cuts which show their rel- 
ative sizes, and many of the most beautiful poetic gems in our language illustrate 
the descriptive portions, and give variety to the Reading Lessons. Part III., 
"Vegetable Physiology, or Botany." Part IV., "Miscellaneous." In Part V., 
"Natural Philosophy," we look in upon the school at "Glenwild," and listen to 
the conversations held in a "Volunteer Philosophy Class." Part VI., "Sketches 
from Sacred History," contains some of the finest selections of Sacred Poetry, with 
beautiful illustrations. 

WILLSON'S FIFTH READER. 540 Pages, Large 12mo, 
Price $1 00. 

Contains, Part I., "Elocutionary," in which the higher principles of Elocution 
are developed in a series of Conversations, with numerous examples. Part II., 
"Herpetology, or Eeptiles" (the Third Division of Zoology), with drawings of 40 
species. Part III., " Human Physiology and Health," continued from the Fourth 
Reader, with 13 illustrations. Part IV., "Botany," continued from the Fourth 
Reader, with drawings of nearly 200 species of Plants, grouped in Families, in ac- 
cordance with the ^'■Natural Method." Part V., "Ichthyology, or Fishes" (the 
Fourth Division of Zoology), with dra^vings of 124 species. Part VI., "Civil Arch- 
itecture," appropriately illustrated with the different Orders, &c. Part VII., 
"Chemistry." Part YllL, "Geology," with Geological Chart and Drawings of 
Extinct Animals. Part XI., "Ancient History," with illustrative Poetical Selec- 
tions, &c. 

There are also Ten "Miscellaneous" Divisions, each illustrated. 

Choice selections, in great part poetical, have been gathered from more than tuo 
hundred different writers, to give interest to and illustrate the scientific divisions, 
and thereby furnish a suitable variety for reading purposes. 



To Peincipals of Schools, who wish single copies for Examination^ with a 
view to Introduction, the above books will be sent, postage prepaid, on receipt of 
half the prices above named. To other persons they wiU be sent, postage prepaid, 
on receipt of the full price. 

For Terms of Introduction^ and for Agencies', address Haepeb & Brothebb, or 
Maeoifs Willson, to their care. 



Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, 

PranklinSquare, New York. 



Beautifully Illustrated, and most of them Colored. 

BY 
MARCIUS WILLSON and N. A. CALKINS. 



Primary Reading Charts. 

Nos. 1 and 2. The Alphabet, and Short Words and Sentences. 
" 3 and 4. Words and Sentences. 
" 5 and 6. Reading Lessons. 
" 7 and 8. Elementary Sounds, Phonetics, &c. 
" 9 and 10. Alphabets, &c., for Drawing and Writing. 

Object Lesson Charts. 

No. 11. Chart of Lines and iMeasures. 
" 12. Forms, and Solids. 

" 13. Thirty-five difterent Colors, with Solar Spectrum. 
" 14. Numerals, and their Api»lications. 

Natural History Charts, 

Adapted to Object Lesson Teaching. 

No. 15. Zoolog}- — the Mammalia, More than 200 Colored Fig- 
ures of Animals, with their proper Classification. 

" 16. Economical Uses of Animals, and Eepresentatives of 
Leading Orders. 

" 17. Chart of Birds. Nearly 200 Colored Figures. 

" 18. Chart of Reptiles and Fishes. 170 Colored Figures. 

" 19 and 20. Botanical Charts, showing 190 Colored Plants, 
with their Classification, together with Organs of Flow- 
ers, and Forms of Leaves, Stems, Roots, and Flowers. 

" 21 and 22. Economical Uses of Plants. (Plants used for 
Food, Clothing, Medicine, Coloring, «S;c.) 



The above Charts are on heavy Binders' Boards — two Charts 
occupying the two sides of one Card. In size they are about 24 by 
29 inches. 

H^^ TTiey are now Nearly Ready for Publication. July, 1861. 



Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, 

Franklin Square, New York. 



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